0.0 0.0 2.6
Acer negundo L. The Shannon index is biased towards
species richness, while the Simpson index is biased towards the
abundance of the most common species (Magurran, 1988). 79(2):
(1) Extension Specialist, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
360Q Agricultural Engineering Sciences Building 1304 W. 1994. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Cornus spp. J. Also in stand 2
Gleditsia triacanthos had significantly lower density and Carya
cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. 0.13 * 0.01
Quercus alba L. E. L. D. As succession progresses, tree density begins to
increase further from the forest border until eventually the entire
field is stocked (Myster and Pickett, 1992). 1978. Ecology. 0.0 5.0 0.2
Viburnum prunifolium L. 4.42 3.51
Prunus serotina Ehrh. 12.0 20.1 8.6
Total 321.2 301.1 110.9
Species 31-40 cm 41+ cm 6 cm
Quercus imbricaria Michx. imbricaria and U. Quercus imbricaria sprouts (Dolan, 1994), and sprouting from
root systems of seedlings that developed during the pasture phase might
explain Q. 0.2 35.0 1.9
Malus spp. 0.0 18.4 0.7
Platanus occidentalis L. Indicators of
past agricultural use included an abrupt soil structure change (granular
to subangular blocky) at depths of 13 cm to 25 cm, non-pedogenic mixing
of the A and B horizons, and evidence of compaction in the lower A
Fowler, N. 3.4 1.9 0.0
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. Stand 2 had 50 percent of its border forested along its
northern boundary. 1.0 1.3 0.7
Viburnum prunifolium L. were the most important species. combined made up almost
69 percent of the stems in this size class. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science.
Hermes, J. The
[R.sup.2] value for the relationships with distance to forest border in
the wider stand were 0.30 for diversity, 0.32 for density, 0.34 for
basal area, and 0.32 for importance value for species having seed
dispersed primarily by animals. A. 0.3 28.9 1.6
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:
A Shannon index of diversity (H’=-[summation] [p.sub.i] 1n
[p.sub.i] where pi equals the proportion of importance for the ith
species) and Simpson index of dominance (D=[summation][p.sub.i] 2 where
[p.sub.i] equals the proportion of importance for the ith species) were
calculated for each stand using the importance values from individual
plots calculated with relative density and relative basal area. 0.3 0.6 0.0
Viburnum prunifolium L. Quercus imbricaria. The two
stands were tested for differences with t-tests using the VP values for
both H’ and D. Seed
dispersal by the blue jay, which, unlike most birds, caches acorns in
the soil and under litter, could explain Q. and J. Gradient trends in the streamside forest of
central Illinois. The distance to nearest forested border in 1936 was determined
from aerial photographs, border forests being defined as those
contiguous areas having at least 50 percent canopy closure. ed. In the
present study we test these hypotheses and describe the species
composition and structure of the two successional forest stands.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. The physiological ecology of plant succession.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 1.3 84.2 8.2
Ulmus americana L. 0.0 0.0 1.6
Prunus spp. The Botanical Review. 49.7 28.3 5.2
Quercus velutina Lam. Brownfield Woods, Illinois: present
composition and changes in community structure. Importance values were also calculated
for each individual plot using only relative density and relative basal
area. Vegetation gradients in the
streamside forest of Hickory Creek, Will County, Illinois. 0.0 0.7 0.3
Crataegus spp. 64(1): 27-37.
Mature pasture trees could have provided a seed source within the
field. imbricaria. and D. Soil variability in upland
forest soils at Allerton Park, Illinois. For each stand the
number of stems per ha (density), basal area ([m.sup.2]) per ha, and
frequency were estimated for tree species. Ulmus spp.
currently represent 18.4 percent of the density and 30.2 percent of the
basal area of dead standing trees in stand 1, and 28.3 percent of the
density and 53.7 percent of the basal area of dead standing trees in
stand 2. 0.2 31.6 1.7
Juniperus virginiana L. The most frequent species in both stands were Quercus imbricaria
Michx., Ulmus americana L., Ulmus rubra Muhl., and Juglans nigra L. 0.3 0.0 0.0
Total 327.7 261.7 105.0
Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 12.0
Tilia americana L. 0.2 34.2 1.6
Acer saccharinum L. 1991. W. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 31.8 22.9 5.6
Acer saccharinum L. M. cordiformis, C. 3.7 1.5 46.0
Total 38.9 25.6 797.8
BA Freq IVa
Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm
Quercus imbricaria Michx. 12.7 1.5 0.0
Cercis canadensis L. and J. 1971. 3.7 1.5 46.0
Ulmus rubra Muhl. 1974. L. Prunus serotina, the seed of which is also commonly dispersed
by birds, was more abundant in stand 2 (Table 3).
Adams, J. 0.3 0.0 0.7
Robinia pseudoacacia L. 107(2):
Johnson, W. Shingle oak (Quercus
imbricaria) and its hybrids in Michigan. and K. Fire and
recruitment of Quercus in a postagricultural field. The
[R.sup.2] values of 0.30 for the relationship between distance to forest
and diversity and 0.32, 0.34, and 0.32 for the relationships between
distance to forest and density, basal area, and IVb, respectively, for
species whose seed is dispersed primarily by mammals indicate that seed
dispersal mechanisms influence the variation of stand composition,
diversity and structure more than is commonly suggested. saccharinum dominated the floodplain forests and
poorly drained soils (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971; Bell,
1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Johnson et al., 1978).
Small fields have been shown to have higher species richness closer
to a forest border (Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). 0.6 0.0 0.0
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.6 0.0
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 1.2 1.9 1.5
Acer negundo L. 1:5,000.
AM-2 [Flight of Piatt County, Illinois]. Boggess. Forest Ecology and Management. imbricaria was the
dominant tree. 0.5 65.0 4.2
Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Total 50.7 36.4 781.6
BA Freq IVa
Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm
Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1.4 80.0 6.8
Total 21.1 1005.0 100.0
Table 3. 9.9 11.4 177.0
Ulmus americana L. 3.1 1.2 0.6
Tilia americana L. 0.76 0.40
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Wind-dispersed species, followed closely by bird-dispersed
species, often invade old fields in advance of mammal-dispersed species
(Bard, 1952; Buell et al., 1971; Smith, 1975; Christensen and Peet,
1984; Myster and Pickett, 1992; Myster, 1993).
Ashby, W. Thesis
The authors thank John M. 0.3 0.0 0.0
Quercus imbricaria Michx. Small Ulmus spp. 0.01 * 0.10
* Significantly different (probability 0.05)
COPYRIGHT 2007 Illinois State Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Aerial photographs from 1936 and maps from 1948 were used to
describe site history and to delineate stands. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,
[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which
species occurred / total number of plots), and importance value
(IV, (relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)
by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 1.
Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm
Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1991. americana, Prunus serotina Ehrh., and
A. 49(5): 924-936.
Bazzaz, F. macrocarpa, C. In the 21 to 30 cm dbh size class Q. Quercus imbricaria, U. 3.7 100.0 16.7
Juglans nigra L. imbricaria,
the third most common species. 0.1 5.3 0.4
Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. I. 0.06 * 0.02
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1.9 0.9 35.8
Quercus velutina Lam. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Cornus spp. 56: 109-116.
Myster, R. Ecology. 8.5 20.5 7.8
Quercus alba L. Fairland, MD:
International Cooperative Publishing House: 117-131.
Harrison, J. 0.7 68.4 4.1
Quercus rubra L. Oecologia. These stands have
been allowed to succeed naturally without direct anthropogenic disturbance since 1946.
Bell, D. and E. alba outnumbered Q. After
pastures were abandoned the subsequent successional processes were not
altered by tree cutting, mowing, or grazing, which usually occur in the
region. Koch, and Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. At greater distances from
the nearby forest, tree species with longer seed dispersal ranges could
establish earlier during succession, affording them a competitive
advantage. Dykstra (1999) indicates that stand 1 was
a secondary forest and stand 2 was an abandoned field in 1940. nigra. D. and E. 3.1 4.6 3.4
Fraxinus americana L. The ranking of seventh in IVa for A. 9 p.
The soil examinations from both stands showed evidence of past
grazing and in portions there were indications of plowing. The wider tract had more wind and bird dispersed tree species
and relatively fewer animal dispersed species. 0.0 0.0 3.3
Platanus occidentalis L. 0.06 0.04
Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.0 0.0 4.9
Tilia americana L. 9.9 11.4 177.0
Ulmus americana L. S. and J. T. 4.9 2.6 1.3
Cercis canadensis L. A preliminary principal components analysis showed no
relationship between tree species composition and soil types
McClain, W. S. 111(982): 1119-1144.
In agricultural regions of the Midwest there are few examples of
uninterrupted succession from old-field to forest. In
stand 1 Q. 0.1 30.0 1.7
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Harmsen. Both
stands were described as successional forest in 1976 (Jones and Bell,
1976). Koch 2.2 1.2 0.6
Quercus alba L. The Condor. Koch 0.3 0.0 4.3
Quercus alba L. It is unlikely, however, that
there were many residual sprouts from root systems of pasture trees at
the time of agricultural abandonment because cattle browsing usually
eliminates sprouts and clearing the forest for crops typically entailed
the removal of large tree roots and stumps.
The two stands had similar species composition (Tables 1 and 2). They
range from moderately well drained (Xenia) to well drained (Miami and
Russell). These soils were formed under forest vegetation on till plain
in loess, other silty material, and the underlying calcareous loam
glacial till (Martin, 1991).
The critical differences between the stands for the purposes of
this study are the amount of surrounding forest at the time of
abandonment and the configuration of the fields. 13.6 9.9 4.0
Gleditsia triacanthos L. Effects of palatability and dispersal mode on spatial patterns of trees in oldfields. 1991. These means were used in t-tests to
examine differences between stands in ecological values for the selected
species. Rolfe (2),
and Jeffrey O. 0.0 0.0 0.6
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.0 0.6
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra L.
had more stems than the Ulmus spp. 0.6 0.3 2.5
Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 1.2
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. L. 119(2): 145-151.
A jack-knifing procedure (Zahl, 1977) was used to calculate the
indices for each stand. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Constraints to tree invasion on a nutrient rich
site during old-field succession. 1984. 0.1 32.5 1.8
Cercis canadensis L. 0.0 0.0 11.7
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 112(3): 410-418.
Bell, D. Also the
study site is unique in that areas of undisturbed succession in central
Illinois are rare because of the typical history of both timber
harvesting and grazing in secondary forests.
Martin, W. Tree invasion and establishment in old fields
at Hutcheson Memorial Forest. 0.6 0.6 0.3
Acer saccharum Marsh 0.9 0.0 0.3
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.08 * 0.30
Fraxinus americana L. S. Pelz, and G. Guyon,
Jeremy M. The results of the linear regression analysis, where
VJ=2.41+0.00011*Distance (m), showed a significant relationship with
distance from the forest border (df=39; p-value0.001). B. glabra. This
indicates plots closer to forested border positively influenced the
H’ value for stand 2 and plots far from the border negatively
influenced the H’ value. L. This indicates that
the most common species are more dominant in stand 2 than in stand 1.
Connell, J. Dawson (2)
The study location was Robert Allerton Park in east-central
Illinois (N39[degrees] 59.9′; W88[degrees] 38.7′), along the
Sangamon River in Piatt County, Illinois. Weaver. 1.9 82.5 7.7
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5
Prunus serotina Ehrh. 22.8 10.4 5.9
Prunus serotina Ehrh. T. In: Becker, N. H. Crow, and M. 596 p.
In the old-field successional forest stands examined in this study,
proximity to forest border was significantly associated with increased
tree species diversity and differences in species composition. and J. 1997. 1993. Although separated by an upland forest similar in composition to the
forest surrounding Stand 1, stand 2 has greater proximity to floodplain
and transitional forest seed sources than Stand 1.
Zahl, S. Jackknifing an index of diversity. 1992. had significantly lower IVb and basal
area relative to stand 1. Patil, W. L. Pickett. Canadian Journal of
Botany. Field work was
conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 and 1999. The estimate of D for stand 1 is 0.06;
the estimate of D for stand 2 is 0.13. M. 0.1 17.5 1.0
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. 1999. American Journal of Botany. Seed dispersal affects the timing of
invasion and distribution of individual species (Bard, 1952; Buell et
al., 1971; Connell and Slatyer, 1977; Oliver, 1981; McDonnell and
Stiles, 1983; Christensen and Peet, 1984; Burton, 1989; Myster and
Pickett, 1992) and can influence species composition by limiting the
number of species that successfully establish at greater distances from
Quercus alba L. Rolfe. Notes on forest succession in old
fields in southeastern Ontario: the woody species. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana.
Jokela, J. Grassle, G. of Natural
Resources and Environmental Sciences.
Bard, G. Juglans nigra was third, but had less than half the IVa of U.
americana. 1993. 179 p.
Bey, C. Quercus rubra was the only oak species that
was not significantly different for any of the three variables. For the
selected species, the mean plot values for density, basal area, and IVb
were calculated for each stand. 1991. and R. R. J. saccharinum and U. velutina. 5.3 1.2 48.2
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to
old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. 1989. Taille (eds.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. 1970. 1989. ovata,
C. Similarly, Quercus and Carya spp. Koch 0.03 * 0.01
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.
Koch. There were 38 plots in stand 1 and 40 plots in stand
Allerton, a wealthy benefactor, had established an estate and gardens at
the site, prior to donating it to the University of Illinois. F. Oecologia. Transactions of the Illinois State
Academy of Science. 1975. imbricaria, Fraxinus americana L., and C.
occidentalis also had high numbers of stems in this size class. and G. 1981. 1981. 0.0 2.5 0.1
Cornus spp. American Midland Naturalist. 58(4):
Crowder, A. 1.2 65.0 4.9
Celtis occidentalis L. Calculating an individual index value for each
plot, and then an average, would not accurately reflect the true
diversity of a stand because diversity is sensitive to sample size
(Magurran, 1988). Most of
the 600 ha of the park are rolling terrain and floodplain with both
old-growth and second growth upland and bottomland forests. 1976. 0.0 0.0 18.5
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. Koch 0.4 39.5 2.4
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.8 21.1 2.3
Acer saccharum Marsh 0.1 36.8 1.7
Tilia americana L. 138(2): 357-370.
Johnson, W. The values were pooled because many
species were absent from a large number of the plots, making an analysis
of individual species problematic. 0.8 36.8 2.6
Cercis canadensis L. Assembling the land. 59(4): 251-272.
Wagner, W. Application of the generalized
jack-knife to Shannon’s measure of information used as an index of
diversity. For IVb,
it was IVb=32.06-0.1564*Distance (m), with and [R.sup.2] value of 0.32.
Schwegman, J. 0.0 2.6 0.1
Total 24.0 1181.6 100.0
Table 2. Slopes range from 0 to 7
circumvention of acorn tannins by blue jays. American elm. 0.1 20.0 1.0
Tilia americana L. rubra, Q. Koch 2.07 * 0.52
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.
Koch. L. Ecology.
The large number of U. T. American Naturalist. 0.0 0.0 0.9
Viburnum prunifolium L. 22(3): 195-215.
Hamrick, J. 1.8 60.5 5.4
Celtis occidentalis L. W. K.
seedlings under conditions of reduced soil water availability and solar
Schneid. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Quercus imbricaria Michx. Smith. 79.1 66.7 24.7
Juglans nigra L. Sassafras
albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Q. American Journal of Botany. albidum made up a
major portion of the total stems, along with F. 0.2 65.0 3.4
Quercus rubra L. T. Buell, and J. Werner. 4.87 * 0.98
Quercus alba L. These values indicate that factors
associated with seed dispersal probably influence the variation of
forest composition and structure more than is commonly suggested.
Proximity to forest vegetation seems to be important as a determinant of
species diversity and composition during old-field succession at this
location. 0.02 * 0.00
Acer saccharinum L. Composition of an upland,
streamside forest in Piatt County, Illinois. 5: 285-307.
De Steven, D. 1952. 1.71 1.13
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 1.24 * 0.05
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1.95 * 0.20
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.42 6.90
Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.8 57.9 3.6
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Intra-
and inter-stand comparisons and their implications for succession
mechanisms. 1977. L. 5.3 1.2 48.2
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Sheets 3 and 6 [map]. 1991a. imbricaria’s dominance
in both stands and its greater abundance in stand 2 than in stand 1.
Most other Quercus spp. 6.28 * 0.42
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.66 7.75
Gleditsia triacanthos L. Secondary succession on the piedmont of New
Jersey. 1.3 7.8 10.7
Celtis occidentalis L. 16(6): 561-571.
Peet, R. 1976. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody
plants in a temperate forest sere. 84(1):
Two successional forest stands developed on pastureland abandoned
during the 1930′s at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA were
examined for patterns of tree species diversity and composition. 10: 351-371.
Dolan, R. The other stand with a higher percentage of
forest perimeter and a narrower configuration was more diverse. G. 8.88 7.61
Ulmus rubra Muhl. Species were selected for comparisons based on two criteria: they
were either one of the 10 most dominant species in either stand based on
IVa or they were a species primarily dispersed by mammals. 1977. Sawtelle. Forest development in North America following
major disturbances. 1967. Dawson
and K. J. Johnson. 1950. Agriculture Handbook
654. Near a forested
border, tree density during succession is greater (Myster and Pickett,
1992) and small fields exhibit greater species richness (Crowder and
Harmsen, 1998). This recreated prairie
is burned periodically to favor prairie and eliminate trees. Tree stratum composition and distribution in the
streamside forest. imbricaria, and Q. Quercus imbricaria was the most common tree in
the 31 to 40 cm diameter class. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Morus rubra L. L. 2.7 42.1 6.0
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.8 57.9 5.6
Gleditsia triacanthos L. 2.54 * 0.71
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1968. in this size class. americana had greater abundance in this
stand (Table 3). Koch. 1975. and B. Gertner (2), Gary L. 1989. Colonization by oak
seedlings into a heterogeneous successional habitat. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.
Ph.D. Shafer and Aaron M. Woody vegetation
of a streamside forest in Illinois. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Robinia pseudoacacia L. 0.15 0.10
Celtis occidentalis L. Guide to common woody plants of
Robert Allerton Park. L. 0.1 2.6 0.2
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. saccharinum, a
floodplain species, on upland stand 2 is noteworthy. Mill. In the transitional zone between the uplands and floodplains,
which is subject to minor flooding, Quercus imbricaria Michx. Forest Ecology: A Foundation for Sustainable
Management. The stand is at least 6 m above the
floodplain of the Sangamon River, but can occasionally have standing
water in depressions associated with Sunbury silt loam. were common across the entire hydrological gradient while A. Landscape and ecological attributes of
Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in Allerton Park. The mean of the VP values is the best estimate of the index.
Jack-knifing an index of diversity allowed us to examine the influence
of individual plots on the overall diversity of a stand without losing
the overall diversity. O. 1975. 3.7 76.3 11.0
Ulmus rubra Muhl. Urbana, IL: Agricultural experiment station, University of
Illinois. L. J. However, the north side of Stand 2 is within 30 m of the
main floodplain and transitional forests of the Sangamon River (Figure
1). Bulletin of the Torrey
Botanical Club. A. 0.02 * 0.00
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. The configurations and proximity to surrounding forest
permitted examination and comparison of the composition and diversity of
two old-field successional stands.
Burton, P. Ulmus spp. In this study Ulmus rubra
Muhl. Urbana, Illinois: Department of Civil Engineering,
Table 1. 7.1 15.4 10.5
Quercus velutina Lam. Bulletin of the
Torrey Botanical Club. 0.96 * 0.09
Acer saccharinum L. L. White for help with field-work, Scott M.
Wiesbrook for help with field-work and soil analysis, and Jeffrey D.
Brawn for a discussion of information on blue jay research.
Briggs, J. Snyder. In accordance with our hypothesis, we expected plots
close to the forest border to have a positive influence (greatest tree
diversity), plots far from the border to have a negative influence
(least tree diversity), and plots in between to have little influence
(intermediate tree diversity) on the diversity of a stand. A significant increase
in diversity with proximity to original forest border was evident only
for stand 2. Pennsylvania
Ave. August 13, 1936.
The t-tests revealed significant differences between stands in
density, basal area, and IVb for some of the selected tree species
(Table 3). J. Journal of Ecology. American Midland Naturalist. 1981. R., W. G. Effect of fire on tree
spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. 1998. 2.9 0.0 0.0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 5.9 100.0 20.0
Ulmus americana L. 2.9 2.3 0.0
Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. 2.96 2.21
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 2.81 * 0.05
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Peet. Both stands were sampled
using 0.081 ha circular plots systematically located 63.3 m apart along
cardinal azimuths. 1985. E. 0.2 15.0 1.0
Acer negundo L. imbricaria’s dominance. 1997.
Nut caching by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): implications for tree
demography. 5.9 100.0 20.0
Ulmus americana L. Effect of soil surface
topography and litter cover on the germination, survival, and growth of
musk thistle (Carduus nutans). These two trees were less than 40 m from the forest
border and by themselves could not likely have contributed to the
differences observed between stands in this study through seed or
sprouts. 1968. Dixon. 0.3 0.0 0.0
Cornus spp. Ecological Monographs. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.
Vankat, J. 2.26 * 1.00
Celtis occidentalis L. These observations indicate that both stands began succession
from pasture to forest in the mid to late 1930′s. Ulmus americana had a much lower percentage of the total
stems per ha in this size class than in smaller size classes. Mechanisms of succession
in natural communities and their role in community stability and
organization. Undisturbed vegetation. 0.05 * 0.11
Quercus rubra L. R. Convergence during
secondary forest succession. Webb, III. Since the stands
differed with respect to both of these attributes, both indices were
Adjacent vegetation influences tree invasion during old-field
succession (Bazzaz, 1968; Vankat, 1991; Myster, 1993) and species found
invading old-fields are often found in proximal forest stands (Ashby and
Weaver, 1970; Buell et al., 1971; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). There were
798 stems per ha having a total basal area of 21.1 m2 per ha for stand
The reduced abundance in stand 2 for most of the Quercus and Carya
spp. Slopes range from 0
to 7 percent. 3.71 3.90
Ulmus rubra Muhl. were the two most
important species in an old-growth upland community located immediately
west of stand 1 (Boggess and Geis, 1967). 5.9 2.2 178.5
Juglans nigra L. 1991. Smith, and C. Regression analyses were performed
with each pooled variable and distance from plots to forest border to
examine relationships between the abundance of the mammal dispersed
species and the distance to forest border.
Crow, T. E. 62(1): 81-85.
Oliver, C. Juglans
nigra also did not differ significantly in mean values for any of the
variables between stands. 0.0 5.3 0.3
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 72(3): 1076-1088.
Magurran, A. L. Bretthauer (1), George Z. O. In addition a linear regression analysis was used to statistically
quantify the relationship of VJ with distance from forest border for the
wider stand 2 which afforded sufficient width to do so. Schoen. M. Dissertation.
The greater percentage of border perimeter shared with forest
during succession and a narrower configuration of stand 1 with respect
to stand 2, most likely contributed to the greater diversity of stand 1
by providing a proximal seed source during colonization and old-field
Bazzaz, F. F. While the jack-knifing
procedure has been used previously to estimate and test the Shannon and
Simpson indices, and has been shown to provide superior accuracy, to our
knowledge the technique has not previously been applied to assess the
influence of individual plots in studies of forest succession. 15.9 8.1 0.0
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. W., J. Its
lower abundance in stand 1 might have been due to the absence of this
poorly drained soil type, which would favor the flood tolerant species
noted above. The
ability of tree species to disperse seed might be as important as other
factors, such as competition and herbivory, in determining tree species
composition in old-fields (De Steven, 1991a; 1991b). Transactions of the
Illinois State Academy of Science. L. 4.0 3.1 12.4
Crataegus spp. 1.2 1.5 0.6
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.6 0.3 28.4
Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.2 39.5 2.4
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Mowing, grazing, and
tree cutting practices during forest succession are common and alter
successional processes in these stands. 1979. F. Ulmus rubra was codominant in 90 year
old successional stands in Ohio (Vankat and Snyder, 1991), and an early
to mid-successional species in other parts of central Illinois (McClain
and Ebinger, 1968).
The estimate of H’, which is the mean of the VP values, is
2.99 for stand 1, the narrow stand with 92 percent original forest
border. The total basal area for stand 1 was 24.0
m2 per hectare, with 782 stems per hectare.
Jones, A. The regression analyses between pooled
values of density, basal area, and IVb and the distance to forest border
were all significant (df=39; p-value0.001). 0.9 0.3 61.5
Acer saccharinum L. 93: 438-442.
McDonnell, M. 0.0 0.0 14.2
Cercis canadensis L. Besides the successional stands, at Allerton Park and
other forests along the Sangamon River in central Illinois Q. Ecology. C. In the 31 to 40 cm size
class, Q. L., and G. L. D. Stand 1 is located in the
southwestern portion of the park and is approximately 15.4 ha in size.
The portion sampled is at least 4.5 m above the floodplain of the
Sangamon River and not subject to periodic flooding. 0.6 0.0 5.9
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. 0.1 10.5 0.6
Morus rubra L. W. Experiments on mechanisms of tree
establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth.
Ecology. Gibson. The [R.sup.2]
value was 0.30, suggesting that distance to original forest border was
an important factor contributing to the variance in diversity among the
Quercus imbricaria’s natural habitat is wooded floodplains,
especially the margins of floodplains, but it occurs more frequently as
a pioneer species in the disturbed or agricultural landscape (Wagner and
Schoen, 1976). 103(12): 25-
Darley-Hill, S. L. 1984. 0.3 0.0 0.0
Morus rubra L. 1992. The role of blue jays
(Cyanocitta cristata L.) in the postglacial dispersal of Fagaceous trees
in eastern North America. A. Transactions of the
Illinois State Academy of Science. Stand 1 has a long and
narrow configuration (Figure 1) and was almost completely surrounded by
mature forest, having 92 percent of its perimeter contiguous with
original forest. and D. Soil Survey of Piatt County, Illinois. Acorn Dispersal by the
blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). 5.54 3.35
Celtis occidentalis L. 1979. The
Allerton legacy: Proceedings of a symposium at Robert Allerton Park.
Urbana, IL: Allerton Trust Management Board, University of Illinois:
The species with seeds primarily dispersed by mammals from stand 2,
for which the density, basal area, and IVb values were pooled, were J.
nigra, Q. Koch 6.2 4.9 2.9
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.7 6.8 4.2
Acer saccharum Marsh 7.8 3.6 0.7
Tilia americana L. Honkala, tech. 1977. R. 3: 153-168.
Smith, A. L. C. C. Size-class structure of three
streamside forests. 1.0 0.0 7.2
Acer saccharinum L. 2.4 60.5 7.0
Quercus alba L. R. A. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.
Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 0.22 * 0.01
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.07 0.10
Gleditsia triacanthos L. 1.2 47.5 4.9
Quercus velutina Lam. L. We hypothesized that a forest stand that
developed on a narrow field with 92 percent forest border would have
greater species diversity than a forest stand that developed on a wider
field with only a 50 percent forest border. 596
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
De Steven, D. Many studies
focus exclusively on site characteristics, resource availability, and
competition as important determinants of forest successional patterns
(Kimmins, 1997). Adkisson. 1.08 * 0.43
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Annual
Review of Ecology and Systematics. For density, the
relationship was Density=16.59-0.0831*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2]
value of 0.32. When stand 2
plots that were close to the forest border were removed from diversity
calculations during the jack-knifing procedure, diversity decreased.
When plots far from the border were removed, diversity increased. T. 1.0 0.0 10.7
Juniperus virginiana L. All rights reserved.
David, M. 1.0 75.0 6.6
Acer saccharinum L. and R. 0.7 20.0 2.3
Fraxinus americana L. American Midland
Naturalist. A. 0.2 7.9 0.6
Crataegus spp. 5.2 3.9 0.7
Juniperus virginiana L. Koch. Observations on the ground reveal that two of the seven large
pasture trees identified in the 1936 photograph of stand 2 could have
been Q. 7.4 19.8 14.5
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3
Prunus serotina Ehrh. The species composition
of the portion of Allerton Park northeast of stand 2 has also been well
documented (Bell, 1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Bell, 1980). P. Gleditsia triacanthos had its highest density in
this size class. This re-sampling procedure calculates the index
n times, where n is the number of plots. and Quercus velutina Lam. L. 98(2): 67-74.
Johnson, G. 0.95 0.43
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. americana, Q.
alba, Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Quercus macrocarpa Michx., Carya ovata
(Mill.) K. The largest size class (41 + cm) was dominated by Q.
imbricaria. L. 56(1): 19-34.
Buell, M. The structural complexity
of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant
species. 0.0 2.5 0.1
Quercus imbricaria Michx. Quercus
imbricaria was the most dominant tree species in the successional
forests of this study, and preference of its small acorns by the blue
jay, which caches acorns in soil and under litter, might be a primary
factor in its ability to more successfully invade old-field successional
stands than other oaks and mammal-dispersed tree species.
(2) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. Origins of oak stands on
the Springfield Plain: a lesson on oak regeneration. K. In the 41 cm and
greater size class, Q. In stand 2 diversity was highest close to
the forest border and decreased as distance from the forest border
increased. 119(3): 300-307.
Two separate upland forest tracts used as pasture prior to the
1930′s were selected as study sites. imbricaria had the highest IVa, followed by U. 1974. 1983. americana and Juglans
nigra L. 7.22 * 1.04
Quercus alba L. 1.6 78.9 7.0
Juglans nigra L. S. 1987. 62: 559-563.
University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus). 0.06 0.05
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.06 * 0.00
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1973. W. 2.32 * 3.73
Quercus rubra L. and W. Acorn preference of urban
blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) during fall and spring in northwestern
Arkansas. The majority of the forest presently
bordering both stands is upland, with small percentages of riparian forest border. The values for
tree density, basal area, and IVb for major mammal dispersed species
were pooled by plot for stand 2. 0.21 * 0.10
Ulmus americana L. Koch. Woody vegetation
of Hart Memorial Woods, Champaign County, Illinois. Species importance values
(IV) were calculated using a sum of relative density, relative basal
area, and relative frequency, were scaled to 100 by dividing by 3, and
are referred to hereafter as IVa. Eighteen years of change in an Illinois
streamside deciduous forest. Koch 1.29 * 0.35
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.
Koch. The notable exception was
the greater abundance of Q. The VJ values from the jack-knifing procedure using
H’ were examined for relationships with distance from forest border
(m). E. The relationship for basal area was Basal
Area=0.76-0.0040*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2] value of 0.34. The upper
soil horizons in both stands were examined for indicators of past
Scarlett, T. Geis. (Table 3) suggests their ability to invade the stand was reduced
with increasing distance from a forest border. 0.7 0.0 9.4
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 104(2): 127-135.
Myster, R. imbricaria
had its greatest importance in transition zones between floodplain and
upland forests; it was not as common as other Quercus spp. Wang. 0.7 0.0 1.0
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. American Midland
Report No. 0.7 1.0 2.6
Crataegus spp. americana dominated the three smallest size classes in stand 2.
Sassafras albidum had a large number of stems in the two smallest size
classes. Adkisson, T. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. The Canadian
Field-Naturalist. were ranked 3 and 6, respectively, due to a
high number of stems in small diameter classes. 3.1 6.2 4.9
Celtis occidentalis L. 22.8 23.1 8.5
Juglans nigra L. 118(4): 392-398.
Bell, D. imbricaria acorns (Hermes, 1991). Variability of
soil properties, including percent moisture and bulk density, for these
and other upland forest soils at Allerton Park is low (David and Wang,
1989). and S. 54.6 32.5 7.2
Ulmus americana L. The
Shannon index of diversity and Simpson index of dominance were
calculated for both stands using the jack-knifing procedure. 6.87 * 14.45
Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 0.0 12.0
Malus spp. Bell. 0.0 1.0 0.7
Prunus spp. L. W. Quercus imbricaria is an important Quercus sp. At Allerton Park in Piatt County
Illinois, old agricultural fields set aside as nature reserves in the
1930′s have reverted to forest without direct subsequent
In stand 2, Q. 0.1 2.6 0.2
Prunus spp. were less abundant in stand 2 than in narrow
stand 1. in
other old-field stands in Illinois (Bazzaz, 1968; Jokela and Sawtelle,
1985). Journal of Biogeography. Close to the forest border, where a greater number of species
could successfully disperse their seeds, greater diversity would be
expected. Ebinger. and R. 0.0 2.5 0.1
Morus rubra L. Koch. 56(2): 485-488.
McCarthy, J. imbricaria in stand 2. The estimate of H’ for stand 2, the wide stand with only 50
percent original forest border, is 2.44. K.
Scott M. bicolor, Q. Quercus imbricaria was the only oak species
that had a significantly higher density, basal area, and IVb in stand 2.
Christensen, N. The Michigan Botanist. A series of
n pseudovalues (VP) are also created. 36 p.
Braun, E. In stand 2, the significant
reduction in the IVb, density, and basal area with greater distance from
forest border for species primarily dispersed by mammals is consistent
with this idea. 0.1 15.0 0.8
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Bulletin of the
Torrey Botanical Club. American Midland Naturalist. Plant species diversity in old-field
successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. A
regression equation using the jack-knifed values quantified a
significant decrease in diversity with distance from forest border for
the wider old-field stand. At Allerton Park, we studied two forest stands with differing
original amounts of forest border that developed on pastureland
abandoned in the 1930′s. A. Ulmus americana has been found to be an initial invader (Briggs
and Gibson, 1992; Crow et al., 1994; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998) and a
dominant early to mid-successional species in northern Illinois (Bell
and del Moral, 1977; Bell, 1997). 7.72 * 20.41
Fraxinus americana L. A series
of jack-knife estimates (VJ) are created for each plot, and represent
the diversity of the stand with an individual plot removed. 12.0 20.1 8.6
Ulmus rubra Muhl. and T. Its remaining border was adjacent to abandoned
pasture that was converted to tallgrass prairie. W. C., C. were present in high
densities. and P. and Celtis
occidentalis L. The park is located in
the Prairie Peninsula of the oak-hickory forest region in the central
United States (Braun, 1950). and Ulmus americana L. imbricaria was the most common species, followed by U.
americana and J. The variance of the VP values is
better than other estimates of H’ variance (Adams and McCune,
1979), making the VP values reliable for significance testing (Zahl,
1977). Forestry research report No.
89-1. T. and S. This relationship was likely not seen in stand 1 because of
its narrow configuration and higher percentage of forested border. 3.3 0.0 0.0
Platanus occidentalis L. A. 1990. University of
Illinois, Urbana, IL. velutina, Q. K.
Schneid. Geis, and W. tomentosa, and C. Juglans nigra and G.
triacanthos were also common. Allerton Park was established
in 1946 and is owned by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
which maintains it as a reserve for research and education. Ecology. 72(1): 25-36.
Records indicate that both study stands were cleared in the late
1800′s and subsequently used for cattle grazing (Foster, 1981).
Aerial photographs and maps show that both stands were originally grassy
pastures with scattered trees (Holmberg Air Mapping Company, 1936;
University of Illinois, 1948). 1.2 35.0 3.6
Crataegus spp. Koch. 3.9 2.3 2.6
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Quercus
alba dominated the upland forest and the second most dominant oak
species was Q. American Midland Naturalist. S. 133 [aerial photograph]. Juglans nigra represented a significant portion of the 21 to 30
cm size class. 0.0 0.3 3.3
Viburnum prunifolium L. Invasion of trees
in secondary succession on the New Jersey piedmont. American Midland Naturalist.
Keywords: Old-field succession; tree species diversity; Quercus
imbricaria; forest regeneration
Edgington, J. 0.30 * 0.47
Juglans nigra L. Acer saccharinum also had a large proportion of its total
number of stems per ha in this size class. Bulletin
of the Torrey Botanical Club. 0.10 0.08
Quercus velutina Lam. T. K.
Schneid. and D. 78(1): 89-97.
If proximity to forest border influences the species composition
and densities of successional forests on old-fields, then differing
amounts of forest border along the perimeter of old-fields and the
extent to which the forest surrounds an old-field should also have an
effect on tree species composition and diversity of successional
forests. Quercus imbricaria
and U. coords. L. J. 6.2 5.3 0.6
Malus spp. Allerton Park is located in the Grand
Prairie Natural Division of Illinois (Schwegman, 1973).
Foster, F. Quercus velutina, F. Johnson, and C. 7.21 * 14.33
Juglans nigra L. American Nurseryman.
Holmberg Air Mapping Company. A. 0.19 0.15
Ulmus rubra Muhl. 0.0 0.0 2.9
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 2.9 2.0 1.3
Acer saccharinum L. No
plots in the narrow stand were far enough from the forest border to
decrease seed dispersal of any tree species in a way that significantly
influenced stand diversity. Floristics of a
chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in
southwestern Ohio. americana comprised about 30
percent of the stems in the smallest size class (6-10 cm). SAF publication 85-05, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois:
. 8.05 * 3.92
Ulmus americana L. The soils consist of Miami (Oxyaquic Hapludalf) loams and
Xenia (Aquic Hapludalf) and Russell (Typic Hapludalf) silt loams. 3.31 * 6.39
Quercus rubra L. M.S. D.
Stand 2 is approximately 16.2 hectares in size and is located in
the eastern part of the park directly south of the Sangamon River
approximately 1200 m northeast of stand 1. 1997. Second Edition. 0.6 0.0 5.3
Acer negundo L. 0.58 * 0.08
Acer saccharinum L. 5.9 2.2 178.5
Juglans nigra L. Ulmus rubra and U. Koch. Acer saccharinum, a floodplain species able to tolerate
wet soils, was most common on, but not restricted to, the Sunbury silt
loam, a somewhat poorly drained soil found in upland depressions. 8.0 3.1 0.6
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Small. Quercus imbricaria was
the dominant tree species among oaks and other species in this study,
perhaps due to preference of its small acorns by the blue jay, which
carries and caches acorns in soil and under litter.
Bazzaz, F. 3.39 * 1.53
Ulmus americana L. 131(1): 84-97.
During early succession to forest, tree density is usually highest
near forest borders. Woody vegetation of Baber
Woods, Edgar County, Illinois. del Moral. Oecologia. 9.4 12.4 7.2
Fraxinus americana L. Quercus imbricaria is also drought tolerant (McCarthy and Dawson,
1990), an attribute of early successional species (Bazzaz, 1979). 0.8 60.5 4.5
Prunus serotina Ehrh. Robert
Allerton set aside this land as a nature reserve. 0.2 18.4 0.9
Viburnum prunifolium L. 7.4 19.8 14.5
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3
Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.2 21.1 1.6
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. The soil types are the same as those of stand 1 with additional
minor areas (less than 20 percent of total stand area) of Sunbury
(Aquollic Hapludalf) silt loam, which is somewhat poorly drained and was
formed in loess and underlying calcareous loam glacial till under forest
vegetation (Martin, 1991). The Quercus spp. R., D. 0.1 7.5 0.6
Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 10.0 0.4
Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.26 * 2.90
Species Stand 1 Stand 2
Quercus imbricaria Michx. rubra and U.
americana (Table 1). 84(3-4): 95-112.
Kimmins, J. 134. 0.0 0.0 6.2
Morus rubra L. 1.0 92.1 7.7
Quercus velutina Lam. Mill. W. Robert Allerton Park,
Piatt Co., Illinois. 1:4250. 0.3 3.1 1.9
Crataegus spp. imbricaria and other Quercus spp. O. 1991b. T. 0.73 * 5.48
Species Stand 1 Stand 2
Quercus imbricaria Michx. Des Moines, Iowa: Woltz Studio
Inc. 0.0 0.0 23.5
Quercus rubra L. Plot means for importance value b (IVb), density, and basal
area (BA) in [m.sup.2], for selected species. 0.0 0.0 5.2
Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Stand 2 has
a wider configuration than stand 1 (Figure 1).
Johnson, W. Growth and water use
efficiency of Quercus alba, Q. Bell. Stiles. C., L. Calculating the diversity of each plot
separately and using the mean to quantify stand diversity is problematic
because it is possible for two plots to have identical values for
diversity yet be composed of completely different species. Reduced forest border and
increased distance from forest stands increases establishment of wind
and bird dispersed tree species over mammal dispersed species. Illinois
Nature preserves Commission, Springfield, IL.
Johnson, F. M. 0.0 0.0 3.4
Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 18.2 5.3 0.0
Quercus rubra L. Majerus (eds.) Proceedings Fifth Central Hardwood Forest
Conference. 2.7 60.5 7.2
Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 5.0 0.2
Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 2.5 0.1
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. These were also scaled to 100 and are referred to hereafter as
IVb. C. were absent in
southern Illinois old-fields less than 25 years old (Bazzaz, 1968;
Boggess, W. 1980. 7.71 4.98
Quercus velutina Lam. H., Jr. Edgington for advice, Lyle J. 11.4 8.5 7.8
Quercus rubra L. 0.1 5.3 0.2
Robinia pseudoacacia L. Differing seed dispersal mechanisms in upland forests
(wind, bird, or mammal) are important in determining the ability of
trees to invade an old-field. Experiments on mechanisms of tree
establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Recruitment into larger size classes
is likely limited due to Dutch elm disease mortality, which Bell (1997)
found to be highest in trees with a dbh greater than 26 cm. The
procedure allowed us to examine the influence of individual plots on
overall stand level diversity, making it possible to quantify the
diversity of a single plot while still permitting a comparison of
diversity between stands. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature
Preserves System: Part 2, The Natrual Divisions of Illinois. 0.0 0.3 0.0
Cornus spp. 1990. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,
[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which species
occurred / total number of plots), and importance value (IV,
(relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)
by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 2.
Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm
Quercus imbricaria Michx. L. 50: 231-232.
There was an apparent relationship between the VJ values of H’
and distance from original forest border (m) in stand 2. F., H. Forest Regeneration on two old
fields in southwestern Illinois. The floodplains were
dominated by Acer saccharinum L. Succession on abandoned fields in the Shawnee
Hills, southern Illinois. 94: 159-164.
This study is unique for several reasons. Dawson. velutina and Q. Microsite requirements for germination and
establishment of three grass species. also had values reflecting a
high degree of dominance. 8.35 5.86
Quercus velutina Lam. were distributed throughout the stand, not
solely on the poorly drained Sunbury silt loam, indicating a greater
ecological amplitude for this species with respect to soil moisture
conditions. 1.9 0.9 13.9
Fraxinus americana L. 0.1 10.5 0.5
Acer negundo L. 1.4 80.0 6.8
Ulmus rubra Muhl. W. All woody stems greater than 6 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh)
(Root et al., 1971; Boggess and Geis, 1967; Johnson et al., 1978;
Edgington, 1991) within a plot were recorded by species to the nearest
cm dbh, and dead standing trees were also recorded. americana stems in the smaller size classes
(Tables 1 and 2) and its intermediate shade tolerance (Bey, 1990)
suggest that existing elm trees may not have been initial colonizers.
Ulmus americana, however, comprised 9 percent of the stems in the 41 cm
and greater size class in stand 2. 1.5 3.1 18.8
Celtis occidentalis L. 4.6 6.8 3.6
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 35.8 26.3 4.9
Gleditsia triacanthos L. Ecological diversity and its measurement.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. The average and maximum distance from a plot
to forest border for stand 1 were 47 m and 99 m, respectively, as
opposed to average distance of 103 m and maximum distance of 204 m for
Bell, D. In: Silvics of North America, Volume
2, Burns, R. In the
11-20 cm size class Ulmus spp., Q. 92(1): 35-46.
Root, T. 118(4): 365-376.
Less forest border and the greater width of stand 2 probably
favored wind-dispersed species compared to mammal-dispersed species. and D. Bulletin of
the Torrey Botanical Club. 65.2 68.3 22.2
Ulmus americana L. 1986. Stand 1 was narrower
and had a greater percentage of its perimeter bordered by forest at
the time of agricultural abandonment.
Species Stand 1 Stand 2
Quercus imbricaria Michx. Washington DC: U.S. We further hypothesized that
species diversity and the abundance of mammal dispersed tree species
would decrease with increasing distance from forest borders. 0.7 0.7 1.3
Acer negundo L. 27.6 27.6 14.6
Ulmus rubra Muhl. L. The H’ values are
significantly different (df=75; p-value0.0001) indicating that stand
1 is more diverse than stand 2. Lee. Slatyer. The importance of seed dispersal is often noted, but
with no quantification of the variability associated with seed sources.
Proximity to surrounding forest vegetation has been shown in the present
study to be important as a determinant of species diversity and
composition during old-field succession. McCune. The
Shannon index of diversity and the Simpson index of dominance are
heterogeneity indices that combine information on both species richness
and species evenness (Peet, 1974). 3.32 2.30
Prunus serotina Ehrh. 65.2 68.3 22.2
Ulmus americana L. Koch. J. Mill. Effects of a prescribed burn on tree- and
herb-layer vegetation in a post oak (Quercus stellata) dominated
flatwoods. Thomas, and C. in
undisturbed upland forests (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971;
Bell, 1974; 1980). The measurement of species diversity. The D values are also
significantly different (df=49; p-value0.0001). 10.4 7.8 0.3
Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)
K. E. 71(4): 412-419.
Dykstra, M. T. Adkisson. from stand 2 had
significantly lower values for all three variables. K.
Schneid. P. Urbana, IL 61801 phone: (217) 333-9418; email: email@example.com
Vankat, J. Elsewhere at Allerton Park and along the Sangamon River,
small diameter Ulmus spp. saccharinum from stand 2 had significantly higher values for the
three variables than in stand 1. Each time the index is
calculated, one plot is systematically removed from the sample. H. 0.0 2.6 0.1
Cornus spp. 1988. 7.2 6.5 4.2
Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Koch 0.1 7.5 0.6
Quercus alba L. E. H., and R. imbricaria, and S. Department of
Civil Engineering. The
greater mass of Q. IV. 79.1 66.7 24.7
Juglans nigra L. 1991. and R. americana had the highest IVa
(Table 2). M. 1971. In
addition, Quercus imbricaria may be primarily dispersed by the blue jay
(Cyanocitta cristata L.) (Darley-Hill and Johnson, 1981; Harrison and
Werner, 1984; Johnson and Webb, 1989; Johnson et al., 1993; Johnson et
al., 1997) which prefers small acorns (Scarlett and Smith, 1991) and is
known to take the small Q. 1994. 12.60 * 24.91
Juglans nigra L. In: J. For
example, A. 0.0 0.0 0.3
Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 3.3 2.9 0.0
Morus rubra L. K. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 3.7 100.0 16.7
Juglans nigra L. In: J. Considering that the
seeds of oak and hickory species are commonly distributed by mammals and
gravity, more surrounding forest cover with seed and associated
dispersal agents seemed to increase the chances for these species to
successfully disperse into the site. acorns relative to
the seed mass of wind dispersed species may afford the Quercus spp.
seeds an advantage in penetrating through grassland plant communities
(Jokela and Sawtelle, 1985; Fowler, 1986; Hamrick and Lee, 1987). 1.9 82.5 7.7
Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5
Prunus serotina Ehrh