W88 warhead program performs successful tests

“The weapon is not required to function after that, just to stay safe,” Edwards said.

A month later, the first drop test of the W88 ALT 370 program mimicked a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface to develop evidence that it would remain safe during an accident. Sandia and its partners are analyzing results to validate requirements and radar design.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. It also represented a milestone: the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

The new radar functioned as expected after launch on a Trident II missile from a Navy submarine, Edwards said. An abnormal environment is one that is unexpected, such as an accident.

Sandia will use vibration and shock measurements from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon, he said. Using an unarmed re-entry body, Sandia conducted the test in partnership with LANL, KCP and Pantex at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon, making the test as realistic as possible.

The two successful tests, which were conducted this summer, provide data for the program, the W88 ALT 370 (alteration), to move forward, said Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities.

The June CRAFT test was the first of several planned flight tests to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests.. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

The first flight and drop tests for the latest variant of the W88 nuclear warhead are providing data for Sandia National Laboratories to validate designs, improve computer modeling and update component specifications.

It was the W88 program’s first abnormal drop test since the system’s original qualification test in 1987. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels.

Explore further:

Evaluating powerful batteries for modular grid energy storage

Sandia National Laboratories performed a drop test for the W88 ALT 370 program, designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface

Irish Church needs ‘reality check’

That sharply compared to the cities where the yes campaign never doubted their support.

In his appeal for a no vote the church’s most senior figure In Irelandspecifically recognised the love shared between same sex couples.

The archbishop personally voted “No” arguing that gay rights should be respected “without changing the definition of marriage”.

The couple, who have been together 10 years, said marriage was especially important for them as they have children.

Out of 43 constituencies, only the largely rural Roscommon-South Leitrim had a majority of “no” votes.

Church in Ireland needs ‘reality check’ after gay marriage vote – BBC News


“I appreciate how gay and lesbian men and women feel on this day. I think it is a social revolution.”

Same-sex marriage is now legal in 20 countries worldwide. There was also a generational divide – with the yes campaign capturing the interest and enthusiasm of young people in a way that few elections do.


AnalysisA tearful couple

By BBC’s Ireland correspondent Chris Buckler

In Ireland debates about morality tend to be rooted in religion.

“It means a lot in this country to be married and to have that status for your family,” Ms Cullen said.

“We won’t begin again with a sense of renewal, with a sense of denial.

Now that the proposal has been passed, a marriage between two people of the same sex will have the same status under the Irish constitution as a marriage between a man and a woman.

This means the first actual marriages are unlikely to take place until September.

The government must bring in a new law, the Marriage Bill 2015, to give effect to the amendment and it says it hopes to do that by the time the Irish parliament breaks up in the summer.. Some living abroad even returned home to Ireland simply to visit the ballot box.

Ms Cullen proposed to her partner live on BBC Radio 5 Live on Sunday.

The archbishop told the Irish broadcaster RT?: “We [the Church] have to stop and have a reality check, not move into denial of the realities. I’m saying there’s a big challenge there to see how we get across the message of the Church,” he added. The discussion about same sex marriage was no exception.

One of Ireland’s most senior Catholic clerics has called for the Church to take a “reality check” following the country’s overwhelming vote in favour of same-sex marriage.

Diarmuid Martin, the archbishop of Dublin, said the Church in Ireland needed to reconnect with young people.

The yes vote means an amendment will be made to Article 41 of the constitution, stating that being of the same sex is no longer an impediment to marriage.

The Catholic Church is not immune from the influence of an increasingly liberal Ireland. That they feel this is something that is enriching the way they live.

They will be recognised as a family and be entitled to the constitutional protection for families.

However, married gay people will now have a constitutional standing that can only be removed by another popular vote.

Civil partnerships for same-sex couples have been legal in Ireland since 2010, giving couples legal protection which could be changed by the government.

Ireland is the first country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage through a popular vote, and its referendum was held 22 years after homosexual acts were decriminalised in the Republic of Ireland.

The referendum found 62% were in favour of changing the constitution to allow gay and lesbian couples to marry.

The first gay marriages are now likely to take place in the early autumn.

Reaction to ‘yes’ vote

grey lineThousands of people celebrate in Dublin Castle Square as the result of the referendum is relayed on 23 MayCelebrations started at Dublin Castle when the results were announced

According to the Irish Times, there will be no new civil partnerships from the day the law comes into effect, and although civil partners will retain their existing rights, there will be no automatic upgrade from partnership to marriage.

Among those voicing their approval of the outcome was UK Prime Minister David Cameron who tweeted: “Congratulations to the people of Ireland, after voting for same-sex marriage, making clear you are equal if you are straight or gay.”

The Catholic Church after all still has much influence in Ireland and the no vote was strongest in rural areas where church attendance figures tend to be higher.


What the ‘yes’ vote means

The Republic of Ireland has a written constitution which can only be changed by referendum.

“I ask myself, most of these young people who voted yes are products of our Catholic school system for 12 years.

Feargha N? Bhroin and Linda Cullen were among those who were pleased at the result of the referendum.

That is a softening of language and in its own way a sign of wider change.


In total, 1,201,607 people voted in favour of same-sex marriage, while 734,300 voted against

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Tree species diversity and composition in relation to forest borders in two old-field successional stands at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA.

0.0 0.0 2.6

Acer negundo L. The Shannon index is biased towards

species richness, while the Simpson index is biased towards the

abundance of the most common species (Magurran, 1988). 79(2):


(1) Extension Specialist, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

360Q Agricultural Engineering Sciences Building 1304 W. 1994. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Cornus spp. J. Also in stand 2

Gleditsia triacanthos had significantly lower density and Carya

cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. 0.13 * 0.01

Quercus alba L. E. L. D. As succession progresses, tree density begins to

increase further from the forest border until eventually the entire

field is stocked (Myster and Pickett, 1992). 1978. Ecology. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Viburnum prunifolium L. 4.42 3.51

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Total 321.2 301.1 110.9


Species 31-40 cm 41+ cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. imbricaria and U. Quercus imbricaria sprouts (Dolan, 1994), and sprouting from

root systems of seedlings that developed during the pasture phase might

explain Q. 0.2 35.0 1.9

Malus spp. 0.0 18.4 0.7

Platanus occidentalis L. Indicators of

past agricultural use included an abrupt soil structure change (granular

to subangular blocky) at depths of 13 cm to 25 cm, non-pedogenic mixing

of the A and B horizons, and evidence of compaction in the lower A


Fowler, N. 3.4 1.9 0.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Stand 2 had 50 percent of its border forested along its

northern boundary. 1.0 1.3 0.7

Viburnum prunifolium L. were the most important species. combined made up almost

69 percent of the stems in this size class. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science.

83(3): 128148.

Hermes, J. The

[R.sup.2] value for the relationships with distance to forest border in

the wider stand were 0.30 for diversity, 0.32 for density, 0.34 for

basal area, and 0.32 for importance value for species having seed

dispersed primarily by animals. A. 0.3 28.9 1.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:




A Shannon index of diversity (H’=-[summation] [p.sub.i] 1n

[p.sub.i] where pi equals the proportion of importance for the ith

species) and Simpson index of dominance (D=[summation][p.sub.i] 2 where

[p.sub.i] equals the proportion of importance for the ith species) were

calculated for each stand using the importance values from individual

plots calculated with relative density and relative basal area. 0.3 0.6 0.0

Viburnum prunifolium L. Quercus imbricaria. The two

stands were tested for differences with t-tests using the VP values for

both H’ and D. Seed

dispersal by the blue jay, which, unlike most birds, caches acorns in

the soil and under litter, could explain Q. and J. Gradient trends in the streamside forest of

central Illinois. The distance to nearest forested border in 1936 was determined

from aerial photographs, border forests being defined as those

contiguous areas having at least 50 percent canopy closure. ed. In the

present study we test these hypotheses and describe the species

composition and structure of the two successional forest stands.

Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. The physiological ecology of plant succession.

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 1.3 84.2 8.2

Ulmus americana L. 0.0 0.0 1.6

Prunus spp. The Botanical Review. 49.7 28.3 5.2

Quercus velutina Lam. Brownfield Woods, Illinois: present

composition and changes in community structure. Importance values were also calculated

for each individual plot using only relative density and relative basal

area. Vegetation gradients in the

streamside forest of Hickory Creek, Will County, Illinois. 0.0 0.7 0.3

Crataegus spp. 64(1): 27-37.

Mature pasture trees could have provided a seed source within the

field. imbricaria. and D. Soil variability in upland

forest soils at Allerton Park, Illinois. For each stand the

number of stems per ha (density), basal area ([m.sup.2]) per ha, and

frequency were estimated for tree species. Ulmus spp.

currently represent 18.4 percent of the density and 30.2 percent of the

basal area of dead standing trees in stand 1, and 28.3 percent of the

density and 53.7 percent of the basal area of dead standing trees in

stand 2. 0.2 31.6 1.7

Juniperus virginiana L. The most frequent species in both stands were Quercus imbricaria

Michx., Ulmus americana L., Ulmus rubra Muhl., and Juglans nigra L. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Total 327.7 261.7 105.0

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 12.0

Tilia americana L. 0.2 34.2 1.6

Acer saccharinum L. 1991. W. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 31.8 22.9 5.6

Acer saccharinum L. M. cordiformis, C. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Total 38.9 25.6 797.8

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 12.7 1.5 0.0

Cercis canadensis L. and J. 1971. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 1974. L. Prunus serotina, the seed of which is also commonly dispersed

by birds, was more abundant in stand 2 (Table 3).


Adams, J. 0.3 0.0 0.7

Robinia pseudoacacia L. 107(2):


Johnson, W. Shingle oak (Quercus

imbricaria) and its hybrids in Michigan. and K. Fire and

recruitment of Quercus in a postagricultural field. The

[R.sup.2] values of 0.30 for the relationship between distance to forest

and diversity and 0.32, 0.34, and 0.32 for the relationships between

distance to forest and density, basal area, and IVb, respectively, for

species whose seed is dispersed primarily by mammals indicate that seed

dispersal mechanisms influence the variation of stand composition,

diversity and structure more than is commonly suggested. saccharinum dominated the floodplain forests and

poorly drained soils (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971; Bell,

1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Johnson et al., 1978).

Small fields have been shown to have higher species richness closer

to a forest border (Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). 0.6 0.0 0.0

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.6 0.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 1.2 1.9 1.5

Acer negundo L. 1:5,000.

AM-2 [Flight of Piatt County, Illinois]. Boggess. Forest Ecology and Management. imbricaria was the

dominant tree. 0.5 65.0 4.2

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Total 50.7 36.4 781.6

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1.4 80.0 6.8

Total 21.1 1005.0 100.0

Table 3. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. 3.1 1.2 0.6

Tilia americana L. 0.76 0.40

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Wind-dispersed species, followed closely by bird-dispersed

species, often invade old fields in advance of mammal-dispersed species

(Bard, 1952; Buell et al., 1971; Smith, 1975; Christensen and Peet,

1984; Myster and Pickett, 1992; Myster, 1993).


Ashby, W. Thesis

The authors thank John M. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Small Ulmus spp. 0.01 * 0.10

* Significantly different (probability 0.05)

COPYRIGHT 2007 Illinois State Academy of Science

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Aerial photographs from 1936 and maps from 1948 were used to

describe site history and to delineate stands. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which

species occurred / total number of plots), and importance value

(IV, (relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 1.


Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1991. americana, Prunus serotina Ehrh., and

A. 49(5): 924-936.

Bazzaz, F. macrocarpa, C. In the 21 to 30 cm dbh size class Q. Quercus imbricaria, U. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. imbricaria,

the third most common species. 0.1 5.3 0.4

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. I. 0.06 * 0.02

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1.9 0.9 35.8

Quercus velutina Lam. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Cornus spp. 56: 109-116.

Myster, R. Ecology. 8.5 20.5 7.8

Quercus alba L. Fairland, MD:

International Cooperative Publishing House: 117-131.

Harrison, J. 0.7 68.4 4.1

Quercus rubra L. Oecologia. These stands have

been allowed to succeed naturally without direct anthropogenic disturbance since 1946.

Bell, D. and E. alba outnumbered Q. After

pastures were abandoned the subsequent successional processes were not

altered by tree cutting, mowing, or grazing, which usually occur in the

region. Koch, and Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. At greater distances from

the nearby forest, tree species with longer seed dispersal ranges could

establish earlier during succession, affording them a competitive

advantage. Dykstra (1999) indicates that stand 1 was

a secondary forest and stand 2 was an abandoned field in 1940. nigra. D. and E. 3.1 4.6 3.4

Fraxinus americana L. The ranking of seventh in IVa for A. 9 p.

The soil examinations from both stands showed evidence of past

grazing and in portions there were indications of plowing. The wider tract had more wind and bird dispersed tree species

and relatively fewer animal dispersed species. 0.0 0.0 3.3

Platanus occidentalis L. 0.06 0.04

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.0 0.0 4.9

Tilia americana L. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. S. and J. T. 4.9 2.6 1.3

Cercis canadensis L. A preliminary principal components analysis showed no

relationship between tree species composition and soil types

(unpublished data).

McClain, W. S. 111(982): 1119-1144.

In agricultural regions of the Midwest there are few examples of

uninterrupted succession from old-field to forest. In

stand 1 Q. 0.1 30.0 1.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Harmsen. Both

stands were described as successional forest in 1976 (Jones and Bell,

1976). Koch 2.2 1.2 0.6

Quercus alba L. The Condor. Koch 0.3 0.0 4.3

Quercus alba L. It is unlikely, however, that

there were many residual sprouts from root systems of pasture trees at

the time of agricultural abandonment because cattle browsing usually

eliminates sprouts and clearing the forest for crops typically entailed

the removal of large tree roots and stumps.

The two stands had similar species composition (Tables 1 and 2). They

range from moderately well drained (Xenia) to well drained (Miami and

Russell). These soils were formed under forest vegetation on till plain

in loess, other silty material, and the underlying calcareous loam

glacial till (Martin, 1991).

The critical differences between the stands for the purposes of

this study are the amount of surrounding forest at the time of

abandonment and the configuration of the fields. 13.6 9.9 4.0

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Effects of palatability and dispersal mode on spatial patterns of trees in oldfields. 1991. These means were used in t-tests to

examine differences between stands in ecological values for the selected

species. Rolfe (2),

and Jeffrey O. 0.0 0.0 0.6

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.0 0.6

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra L.

had more stems than the Ulmus spp. 0.6 0.3 2.5

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 1.2

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. L. 119(2): 145-151.

A jack-knifing procedure (Zahl, 1977) was used to calculate the

indices for each stand. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Constraints to tree invasion on a nutrient rich

site during old-field succession. 1984. 0.1 32.5 1.8

Cercis canadensis L. 0.0 0.0 11.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 112(3): 410-418.

Bell, D. Also the

study site is unique in that areas of undisturbed succession in central

Illinois are rare because of the typical history of both timber

harvesting and grazing in secondary forests.

Martin, W. Tree invasion and establishment in old fields

at Hutcheson Memorial Forest. 0.6 0.6 0.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.9 0.0 0.3

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.08 * 0.30

Fraxinus americana L. S. Pelz, and G. Guyon,

Jeremy M. The results of the linear regression analysis, where

VJ=2.41+0.00011*Distance (m), showed a significant relationship with

distance from the forest border (df=39; p-value0.001). B. glabra. This

indicates plots closer to forested border positively influenced the

H’ value for stand 2 and plots far from the border negatively

influenced the H’ value. L. This indicates that

the most common species are more dominant in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Connell, J. Dawson (2)

The study location was Robert Allerton Park in east-central

Illinois (N39[degrees] 59.9′; W88[degrees] 38.7′), along the

Sangamon River in Piatt County, Illinois. Weaver. 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 22.8 10.4 5.9

Prunus serotina Ehrh. T. In: Becker, N. H. Crow, and M. 596 p.

In the old-field successional forest stands examined in this study,

proximity to forest border was significantly associated with increased

tree species diversity and differences in species composition. and J. 1997. 1993. Although separated by an upland forest similar in composition to the

forest surrounding Stand 1, stand 2 has greater proximity to floodplain

and transitional forest seed sources than Stand 1.

Zahl, S. Jackknifing an index of diversity. 1992. had significantly lower IVb and basal

area relative to stand 1. Patil, W. L. Pickett. Canadian Journal of

Botany. Field work was

conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 and 1999. The estimate of D for stand 1 is 0.06;

the estimate of D for stand 2 is 0.13. M. 0.1 17.5 1.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 1999. American Journal of Botany. Seed dispersal affects the timing of

invasion and distribution of individual species (Bard, 1952; Buell et

al., 1971; Connell and Slatyer, 1977; Oliver, 1981; McDonnell and

Stiles, 1983; Christensen and Peet, 1984; Burton, 1989; Myster and

Pickett, 1992) and can influence species composition by limiting the

number of species that successfully establish at greater distances from

seed sources.


Quercus alba L. Rolfe. Notes on forest succession in old

fields in southeastern Ontario: the woody species. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana.

Jokela, J. Grassle, G. of Natural

Resources and Environmental Sciences.

Bard, G. Juglans nigra was third, but had less than half the IVa of U.

americana. 1993. 179 p.

Bey, C. Quercus rubra was the only oak species that

was not significantly different for any of the three variables. For the

selected species, the mean plot values for density, basal area, and IVb

were calculated for each stand. 1991. and R. R. J. saccharinum and U. velutina. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to

old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. 1989. Taille (eds.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. 1970. 1989. ovata,

C. Similarly, Quercus and Carya spp. Koch 0.03 * 0.01

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. There were 38 plots in stand 1 and 40 plots in stand

2. Robert

Allerton, a wealthy benefactor, had established an estate and gardens at

the site, prior to donating it to the University of Illinois. F. Oecologia. Transactions of the Illinois State

Academy of Science. 1975. imbricaria, Fraxinus americana L., and C.

occidentalis also had high numbers of stems in this size class. and G. 1981. 1981. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Cornus spp. American Midland Naturalist. 58(4):


Crowder, A. 1.2 65.0 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. Calculating an individual index value for each

plot, and then an average, would not accurately reflect the true

diversity of a stand because diversity is sensitive to sample size

(Magurran, 1988). Most of

the 600 ha of the park are rolling terrain and floodplain with both

old-growth and second growth upland and bottomland forests. 1976. 0.0 0.0 18.5

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Koch 0.4 39.5 2.4

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.8 21.1 2.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.1 36.8 1.7

Tilia americana L. 138(2): 357-370.


Johnson, W. The values were pooled because many

species were absent from a large number of the plots, making an analysis

of individual species problematic. 0.8 36.8 2.6

Cercis canadensis L. Assembling the land. 59(4): 251-272.

Wagner, W. Application of the generalized

jack-knife to Shannon’s measure of information used as an index of

diversity. For IVb,

it was IVb=32.06-0.1564*Distance (m), with and [R.sup.2] value of 0.32.

Schwegman, J. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Total 24.0 1181.6 100.0

Table 2. Slopes range from 0 to 7

percent. Dietary

circumvention of acorn tannins by blue jays. American elm. 0.1 20.0 1.0

Tilia americana L. rubra, Q. Koch 2.07 * 0.52

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. L. Ecology.

72(3): 1066-1075.

The large number of U. T. American Naturalist. 0.0 0.0 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. 22(3): 195-215.

Hamrick, J. 1.8 60.5 5.4

Celtis occidentalis L. W. K.

Schneid. palustris

seedlings under conditions of reduced soil water availability and solar

irradiance. K.

Schneid. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Smith. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. Sassafras

albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Q. American Journal of Botany. albidum made up a

major portion of the total stems, along with F. 0.2 65.0 3.4

Quercus rubra L. T. Buell, and J. Werner. 4.87 * 0.98

Quercus alba L. These values indicate that factors

associated with seed dispersal probably influence the variation of

forest composition and structure more than is commonly suggested.

Proximity to forest vegetation seems to be important as a determinant of

species diversity and composition during old-field succession at this

location. 0.02 * 0.00

Acer saccharinum L. Composition of an upland,

streamside forest in Piatt County, Illinois. 5: 285-307.

De Steven, D. 1952. 1.71 1.13

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 1.24 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1.95 * 0.20

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.42 6.90

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.8 57.9 3.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Intra-

and inter-stand comparisons and their implications for succession

mechanisms. 1977. L. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Sheets 3 and 6 [map]. 1991a. imbricaria’s dominance

in both stands and its greater abundance in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Most other Quercus spp. 6.28 * 0.42

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.66 7.75

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Secondary succession on the piedmont of New

Jersey. 1.3 7.8 10.7

Celtis occidentalis L. 16(6): 561-571.

Peet, R. 1976. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody

plants in a temperate forest sere. 84(1):


Two successional forest stands developed on pastureland abandoned

during the 1930′s at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA were

examined for patterns of tree species diversity and composition. 10: 351-371.

Dolan, R. The other stand with a higher percentage of

forest perimeter and a narrower configuration was more diverse. G. 8.88 7.61

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Species were selected for comparisons based on two criteria: they

were either one of the 10 most dominant species in either stand based on

IVa or they were a species primarily dispersed by mammals. 1977. Sawtelle. Forest development in North America following

major disturbances. 1967. Dawson

and K. J. Johnson. 1950. Agriculture Handbook

654. Near a forested

border, tree density during succession is greater (Myster and Pickett,

1992) and small fields exhibit greater species richness (Crowder and

Harmsen, 1998). This recreated prairie

is burned periodically to favor prairie and eliminate trees. Tree stratum composition and distribution in the

streamside forest. imbricaria, and Q. Quercus imbricaria was the most common tree in

the 31 to 40 cm diameter class. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Morus rubra L. L. 2.7 42.1 6.0

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.8 57.9 5.6

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 2.54 * 0.71

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1968. in this size class. americana had greater abundance in this

stand (Table 3). Koch. 1975. and B. Gertner (2), Gary L. 1989. Colonization by oak

seedlings into a heterogeneous successional habitat. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Ph.D. Shafer and Aaron M. Woody vegetation

of a streamside forest in Illinois. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Robinia pseudoacacia L. 0.15 0.10

Celtis occidentalis L. Guide to common woody plants of

Robert Allerton Park. L. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. saccharinum, a

floodplain species, on upland stand 2 is noteworthy. Mill. In the transitional zone between the uplands and floodplains,

which is subject to minor flooding, Quercus imbricaria Michx. Forest Ecology: A Foundation for Sustainable

Management. The stand is at least 6 m above the

floodplain of the Sangamon River, but can occasionally have standing

water in depressions associated with Sunbury silt loam. were common across the entire hydrological gradient while A. Landscape and ecological attributes of

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in Allerton Park. The mean of the VP values is the best estimate of the index.

Jack-knifing an index of diversity allowed us to examine the influence

of individual plots on the overall diversity of a stand without losing

the overall diversity. O. 1975. 3.7 76.3 11.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Urbana, IL: Agricultural experiment station, University of

Illinois. L. J. However, the north side of Stand 2 is within 30 m of the

main floodplain and transitional forests of the Sangamon River (Figure

1). Bulletin of the Torrey

Botanical Club. A. 0.02 * 0.00

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. The configurations and proximity to surrounding forest

permitted examination and comparison of the composition and diversity of

two old-field successional stands.

Burton, P. Ulmus spp. In this study Ulmus rubra

Muhl. Urbana, Illinois: Department of Civil Engineering,


Table 1. 7.1 15.4 10.5

Quercus velutina Lam. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. 0.96 * 0.09

Acer saccharinum L. L. White for help with field-work, Scott M.

Wiesbrook for help with field-work and soil analysis, and Jeffrey D.

Brawn for a discussion of information on blue jay research.

Briggs, J. Snyder. In accordance with our hypothesis, we expected plots

close to the forest border to have a positive influence (greatest tree

diversity), plots far from the border to have a negative influence

(least tree diversity), and plots in between to have little influence

(intermediate tree diversity) on the diversity of a stand. A significant increase

in diversity with proximity to original forest border was evident only

for stand 2. Pennsylvania

Ave. August 13, 1936.

The t-tests revealed significant differences between stands in

density, basal area, and IVb for some of the selected tree species

(Table 3). J. Journal of Ecology. American Midland Naturalist. 1981. R., W. G. Effect of fire on tree

spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. 1998. 2.9 0.0 0.0

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. 2.9 2.3 0.0

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. 2.96 2.21

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 2.81 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Peet. Both stands were sampled

using 0.081 ha circular plots systematically located 63.3 m apart along

cardinal azimuths. 1985. E. 0.2 15.0 1.0

Acer negundo L. imbricaria’s dominance. 1997.

Nut caching by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): implications for tree

demography. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. Effect of soil surface

topography and litter cover on the germination, survival, and growth of

musk thistle (Carduus nutans). These two trees were less than 40 m from the forest

border and by themselves could not likely have contributed to the

differences observed between stands in this study through seed or

sprouts. 1968. Dixon. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Cornus spp. Ecological Monographs. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

124(2): 174-188.

Vankat, J. 2.26 * 1.00

Celtis occidentalis L. These observations indicate that both stands began succession

from pasture to forest in the mid to late 1930′s. Ulmus americana had a much lower percentage of the total

stems per ha in this size class than in smaller size classes. Mechanisms of succession

in natural communities and their role in community stability and

organization. Undisturbed vegetation. 0.05 * 0.11

Quercus rubra L. R. Convergence during

secondary forest succession. Webb, III. Since the stands

differed with respect to both of these attributes, both indices were


Adjacent vegetation influences tree invasion during old-field

succession (Bazzaz, 1968; Vankat, 1991; Myster, 1993) and species found

invading old-fields are often found in proximal forest stands (Ashby and

Weaver, 1970; Buell et al., 1971; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). There were

798 stems per ha having a total basal area of 21.1 m2 per ha for stand


The reduced abundance in stand 2 for most of the Quercus and Carya

spp. Slopes range from 0

to 7 percent. 3.71 3.90

Ulmus rubra Muhl. were the two most

important species in an old-growth upland community located immediately

west of stand 1 (Boggess and Geis, 1967). 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. 1991. Smith, and C. Regression analyses were performed

with each pooled variable and distance from plots to forest border to

examine relationships between the abundance of the mammal dispersed

species and the distance to forest border.

Crow, T. E. 62(1): 81-85.

Oliver, C. Juglans

nigra also did not differ significantly in mean values for any of the

variables between stands. 0.0 5.3 0.3

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 72(3): 1076-1088.

Magurran, A. L. Bretthauer (1), George Z. O. In addition a linear regression analysis was used to statistically

quantify the relationship of VJ with distance from forest border for the

wider stand 2 which afforded sufficient width to do so. Schoen. M. Dissertation.

The greater percentage of border perimeter shared with forest

during succession and a narrower configuration of stand 1 with respect

to stand 2, most likely contributed to the greater diversity of stand 1

by providing a proximal seed source during colonization and old-field


Bazzaz, F. F. While the jack-knifing

procedure has been used previously to estimate and test the Shannon and

Simpson indices, and has been shown to provide superior accuracy, to our

knowledge the technique has not previously been applied to assess the

influence of individual plots in studies of forest succession. 15.9 8.1 0.0

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. W., J. Its

lower abundance in stand 1 might have been due to the absence of this

poorly drained soil type, which would favor the flood tolerant species

noted above. The

ability of tree species to disperse seed might be as important as other

factors, such as competition and herbivory, in determining tree species

composition in old-fields (De Steven, 1991a; 1991b). Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. L. 4.0 3.1 12.4

Crataegus spp. 1.2 1.5 0.6

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.6 0.3 28.4

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.2 39.5 2.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Mowing, grazing, and

tree cutting practices during forest succession are common and alter

successional processes in these stands. 1979. F. Ulmus rubra was codominant in 90 year

old successional stands in Ohio (Vankat and Snyder, 1991), and an early

to mid-successional species in other parts of central Illinois (McClain

and Ebinger, 1968).

The estimate of H’, which is the mean of the VP values, is

2.99 for stand 1, the narrow stand with 92 percent original forest

border. The total basal area for stand 1 was 24.0

m2 per hectare, with 782 stems per hectare.

Jones, A. The regression analyses between pooled

values of density, basal area, and IVb and the distance to forest border

were all significant (df=39; p-value0.001). 0.9 0.3 61.5

Acer saccharinum L. 93: 438-442.

McDonnell, M. 0.0 0.0 14.2

Cercis canadensis L. Besides the successional stands, at Allerton Park and

other forests along the Sangamon River in central Illinois Q. Ecology. C. In the 31 to 40 cm size

class, Q. L., and G. L. D. Stand 1 is located in the

southwestern portion of the park and is approximately 15.4 ha in size.

The portion sampled is at least 4.5 m above the floodplain of the

Sangamon River and not subject to periodic flooding. 0.6 0.0 5.9

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 0.1 10.5 0.6

Morus rubra L. W. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth.

Ecology. Gibson. The [R.sup.2]

value was 0.30, suggesting that distance to original forest border was

an important factor contributing to the variance in diversity among the


Quercus imbricaria’s natural habitat is wooded floodplains,

especially the margins of floodplains, but it occurs more frequently as

a pioneer species in the disturbed or agricultural landscape (Wagner and

Schoen, 1976). 103(12): 25-


Darley-Hill, S. L. 1984. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Morus rubra L. 1992. The role of blue jays

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) in the postglacial dispersal of Fagaceous trees

in eastern North America. A. Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. Stand 1 has a long and

narrow configuration (Figure 1) and was almost completely surrounded by

mature forest, having 92 percent of its perimeter contiguous with

original forest. and D. Soil Survey of Piatt County, Illinois. Acorn Dispersal by the

blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). 5.54 3.35

Celtis occidentalis L. 1979. The

Allerton legacy: Proceedings of a symposium at Robert Allerton Park.

Urbana, IL: Allerton Trust Management Board, University of Illinois:


The species with seeds primarily dispersed by mammals from stand 2,

for which the density, basal area, and IVb values were pooled, were J.

nigra, Q. Koch 6.2 4.9 2.9

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.7 6.8 4.2

Acer saccharum Marsh 7.8 3.6 0.7

Tilia americana L. Honkala, tech. 1977. R. 3: 153-168.

Smith, A. L. C. C. Size-class structure of three

streamside forests. 1.0 0.0 7.2

Acer saccharinum L. 2.4 60.5 7.0

Quercus alba L. R. A. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.

Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 0.22 * 0.01

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.07 0.10

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 1.2 47.5 4.9

Quercus velutina Lam. L. We hypothesized that a forest stand that

developed on a narrow field with 92 percent forest border would have

greater species diversity than a forest stand that developed on a wider

field with only a 50 percent forest border. 596


accepted 6/18/06


received 6/30/05

De Steven, D. Many studies

focus exclusively on site characteristics, resource availability, and

competition as important determinants of forest successional patterns

(Kimmins, 1997). Adkisson. 1.08 * 0.43

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Annual

Review of Ecology and Systematics. For density, the

relationship was Density=16.59-0.0831*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2]

value of 0.32. When stand 2

plots that were close to the forest border were removed from diversity

calculations during the jack-knifing procedure, diversity decreased.

When plots far from the border were removed, diversity increased. T. 1.0 0.0 10.7

Juniperus virginiana L. All rights reserved.

David, M. 1.0 75.0 6.6

Acer saccharinum L. and R. 0.7 20.0 2.3

Fraxinus americana L. American Midland

Naturalist. A. 0.2 7.9 0.6

Crataegus spp. 5.2 3.9 0.7

Juniperus virginiana L. Koch. Observations on the ground reveal that two of the seven large

pasture trees identified in the 1936 photograph of stand 2 could have

been Q. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. The species composition

of the portion of Allerton Park northeast of stand 2 has also been well

documented (Bell, 1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Bell, 1980). P. Gleditsia triacanthos had its highest density in

this size class. This re-sampling procedure calculates the index

n times, where n is the number of plots. and Quercus velutina Lam. L. 98(2): 67-74.

Johnson, G. 0.95 0.43

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. americana, Q.

alba, Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Quercus macrocarpa Michx., Carya ovata

(Mill.) K. The largest size class (41 + cm) was dominated by Q.

imbricaria. L. 56(1): 19-34.

Buell, M. The structural complexity

of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant

species. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Quercus

imbricaria was the most dominant tree species in the successional

forests of this study, and preference of its small acorns by the blue

jay, which caches acorns in soil and under litter, might be a primary

factor in its ability to more successfully invade old-field successional

stands than other oaks and mammal-dispersed tree species.

(2) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. Origins of oak stands on

the Springfield Plain: a lesson on oak regeneration. K. In the 41 cm and

greater size class, Q. In stand 2 diversity was highest close to

the forest border and decreased as distance from the forest border

increased. 119(3): 300-307.

Two separate upland forest tracts used as pasture prior to the

1930′s were selected as study sites. imbricaria had the highest IVa, followed by U. 1974. 1983. americana and Juglans

nigra L. 7.22 * 1.04

Quercus alba L. 1.6 78.9 7.0

Juglans nigra L. S. 1987. 62: 559-563.

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus). 0.06 0.05

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.06 * 0.00

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1973. W. 2.32 * 3.73

Quercus rubra L. and W. Acorn preference of urban

blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) during fall and spring in northwestern

Arkansas. The majority of the forest presently

bordering both stands is upland, with small percentages of riparian forest border. The values for

tree density, basal area, and IVb for major mammal dispersed species

were pooled by plot for stand 2. 0.21 * 0.10

Ulmus americana L. Koch. Woody vegetation

of Hart Memorial Woods, Champaign County, Illinois. Species importance values

(IV) were calculated using a sum of relative density, relative basal

area, and relative frequency, were scaled to 100 by dividing by 3, and

are referred to hereafter as IVa. Eighteen years of change in an Illinois

streamside deciduous forest. Koch 1.29 * 0.35

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. The notable exception was

the greater abundance of Q. The VJ values from the jack-knifing procedure using

H’ were examined for relationships with distance from forest border

(m). E. The relationship for basal area was Basal

Area=0.76-0.0040*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2] value of 0.34. The upper

soil horizons in both stands were examined for indicators of past

agricultural use.

Scarlett, T. Geis. (Table 3) suggests their ability to invade the stand was reduced

with increasing distance from a forest border. 0.7 0.0 9.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 104(2): 127-135.

Myster, R. imbricaria

had its greatest importance in transition zones between floodplain and

upland forests; it was not as common as other Quercus spp. Wang. 0.7 0.0 1.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. American Midland

Naturalist. Soil

Report No. 0.7 1.0 2.6

Crataegus spp. americana dominated the three smallest size classes in stand 2.

Sassafras albidum had a large number of stems in the two smallest size

classes. Adkisson, T. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. The Canadian

Field-Naturalist. were ranked 3 and 6, respectively, due to a

high number of stems in small diameter classes. 3.1 6.2 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. 22.8 23.1 8.5

Juglans nigra L. 118(4): 392-398.

Bell, D. imbricaria acorns (Hermes, 1991). Variability of

soil properties, including percent moisture and bulk density, for these

and other upland forest soils at Allerton Park is low (David and Wang,

1989). and S. 54.6 32.5 7.2

Ulmus americana L. The

Shannon index of diversity and Simpson index of dominance were

calculated for both stands using the jack-knifing procedure. 6.87 * 14.45

Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 0.0 12.0

Malus spp. Bell. 0.0 1.0 0.7

Prunus spp. L. W. Quercus imbricaria is an important Quercus sp. At Allerton Park in Piatt County

Illinois, old agricultural fields set aside as nature reserves in the

1930′s have reverted to forest without direct subsequent

disturbance. 15:


In stand 2, Q. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Prunus spp. were less abundant in stand 2 than in narrow

stand 1. in

other old-field stands in Illinois (Bazzaz, 1968; Jokela and Sawtelle,

1985). Journal of Biogeography. Close to the forest border, where a greater number of species

could successfully disperse their seeds, greater diversity would be

expected. Ebinger. and R. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Morus rubra L. Koch. 56(2): 485-488.

McCarthy, J. imbricaria in stand 2. The estimate of H’ for stand 2, the wide stand with only 50

percent original forest border, is 2.44. K.

Schneid. 74(3):


Scott M. bicolor, Q. Quercus imbricaria was the only oak species

that had a significantly higher density, basal area, and IVb in stand 2.

Christensen, N. The Michigan Botanist. A series of

n pseudovalues (VP) are also created. 36 p.

Braun, E. In stand 2, the significant

reduction in the IVb, density, and basal area with greater distance from

forest border for species primarily dispersed by mammals is consistent

with this idea. 0.1 15.0 0.8

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. American Midland Naturalist. Plant species diversity in old-field

successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. A

regression equation using the jack-knifed values quantified a

significant decrease in diversity with distance from forest border for

the wider old-field stand. At Allerton Park, we studied two forest stands with differing

original amounts of forest border that developed on pastureland

abandoned in the 1930′s. A. Ulmus americana has been found to be an initial invader (Briggs

and Gibson, 1992; Crow et al., 1994; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998) and a

dominant early to mid-successional species in northern Illinois (Bell

and del Moral, 1977; Bell, 1997). 7.72 * 20.41

Fraxinus americana L. A series

of jack-knife estimates (VJ) are created for each plot, and represent

the diversity of the stand with an individual plot removed. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. and T. Its remaining border was adjacent to abandoned

pasture that was converted to tallgrass prairie. W. C., C. were present in high

densities. and P. and Celtis

occidentalis L. The park is located in

the Prairie Peninsula of the oak-hickory forest region in the central

United States (Braun, 1950). and Ulmus americana L. imbricaria was the most common species, followed by U.

americana and J. The variance of the VP values is

better than other estimates of H’ variance (Adams and McCune,

1979), making the VP values reliable for significance testing (Zahl,

1977). Forestry research report No.

89-1. T. and S. This relationship was likely not seen in stand 1 because of

its narrow configuration and higher percentage of forested border. 3.3 0.0 0.0

Platanus occidentalis L. A. 1990. University of

Illinois, Urbana, IL. velutina, Q. K.

Schneid. Geis, and W. tomentosa, and C. Juglans nigra and G.

triacanthos were also common. Allerton Park was established

in 1946 and is owned by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

which maintains it as a reserve for research and education. Ecology. 72(1): 25-36.

Records indicate that both study stands were cleared in the late

1800′s and subsequently used for cattle grazing (Foster, 1981).

Aerial photographs and maps show that both stands were originally grassy

pastures with scattered trees (Holmberg Air Mapping Company, 1936;

University of Illinois, 1948). 1.2 35.0 3.6

Crataegus spp. Koch. 3.9 2.3 2.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Quercus

alba dominated the upland forest and the second most dominant oak

species was Q. American Midland Naturalist. S. 133 [aerial photograph]. Juglans nigra represented a significant portion of the 21 to 30

cm size class. 0.0 0.3 3.3

Viburnum prunifolium L. Invasion of trees

in secondary succession on the New Jersey piedmont. American Midland Naturalist.

115(1): 131-145.

Keywords: Old-field succession; tree species diversity; Quercus

imbricaria; forest regeneration

Edgington, J. 0.30 * 0.47

Juglans nigra L. Acer saccharinum also had a large proportion of its total

number of stems per ha in this size class. Bulletin

of the Torrey Botanical Club. 0.10 0.08

Quercus velutina Lam. T. K.

Schneid. and D. 78(1): 89-97.

If proximity to forest border influences the species composition

and densities of successional forests on old-fields, then differing

amounts of forest border along the perimeter of old-fields and the

extent to which the forest surrounds an old-field should also have an

effect on tree species composition and diversity of successional

forests. Quercus imbricaria

and U. coords. L. J. 6.2 5.3 0.6

Malus spp. Allerton Park is located in the Grand

Prairie Natural Division of Illinois (Schwegman, 1973).


Foster, F. Quercus velutina, F. Johnson, and C. 7.21 * 14.33

Juglans nigra L. American Nurseryman.

174(8): 71.

Holmberg Air Mapping Company. A. 0.19 0.15

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 0.0 0.0 2.9

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 2.9 2.0 1.3

Acer saccharinum L. No

plots in the narrow stand were far enough from the forest border to

decrease seed dispersal of any tree species in a way that significantly

influenced stand diversity. Floristics of a

chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in

southwestern Ohio. americana comprised about 30

percent of the stems in the smallest size class (6-10 cm). SAF publication 85-05, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois:


. 8.05 * 3.92

Ulmus americana L. The soils consist of Miami (Oxyaquic Hapludalf) loams and

Xenia (Aquic Hapludalf) and Russell (Typic Hapludalf) silt loams. 3.31 * 6.39

Quercus rubra L. M.S. D.

Stand 2 is approximately 16.2 hectares in size and is located in

the eastern part of the park directly south of the Sangamon River

approximately 1200 m northeast of stand 1. 1997. Second Edition. 0.6 0.0 5.3

Acer negundo L. 0.58 * 0.08

Acer saccharinum L. 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. Ulmus rubra and U. Koch. Acer saccharinum, a floodplain species able to tolerate

wet soils, was most common on, but not restricted to, the Sunbury silt

loam, a somewhat poorly drained soil found in upland depressions. 8.0 3.1 0.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Small. Quercus imbricaria was

the dominant tree species among oaks and other species in this study,

perhaps due to preference of its small acorns by the blue jay, which

carries and caches acorns in soil and under litter.

Bazzaz, F. 3.39 * 1.53

Ulmus americana L. 131(1): 84-97.

During early succession to forest, tree density is usually highest

near forest borders. Woody vegetation of Baber

Woods, Edgar County, Illinois. del Moral. Oecologia. 9.4 12.4 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. Quercus imbricaria is also drought tolerant (McCarthy and Dawson,

1990), an attribute of early successional species (Bazzaz, 1979). 0.8 60.5 4.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Robert

Allerton set aside this land as a nature reserve. 0.2 18.4 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.2 21.1 1.6

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. The soil types are the same as those of stand 1 with additional

minor areas (less than 20 percent of total stand area) of Sunbury

(Aquollic Hapludalf) silt loam, which is somewhat poorly drained and was

formed in loess and underlying calcareous loam glacial till under forest

vegetation (Martin, 1991). The Quercus spp. R., D. 0.1 7.5 0.6

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 10.0 0.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.26 * 2.90


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. rubra and U.

americana (Table 1). 84(3-4): 95-112.

Kimmins, J. 134. 0.0 0.0 6.2

Morus rubra L. 1.0 92.1 7.7

Quercus velutina Lam. Mill. W. Robert Allerton Park,

Piatt Co., Illinois. 1:4250. 0.3 3.1 1.9

Crataegus spp. imbricaria and other Quercus spp. O. 1991b. T. 0.73 * 5.48


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Des Moines, Iowa: Woltz Studio

Inc. 0.0 0.0 23.5

Quercus rubra L. Plot means for importance value b (IVb), density, and basal

area (BA) in [m.sup.2], for selected species. 0.0 0.0 5.2

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Stand 2 has

a wider configuration than stand 1 (Figure 1).

Johnson, W. Growth and water use

efficiency of Quercus alba, Q. Bell. Stiles. C., L. Calculating the diversity of each plot

separately and using the mean to quantify stand diversity is problematic

because it is possible for two plots to have identical values for

diversity yet be composed of completely different species. Reduced forest border and

increased distance from forest stands increases establishment of wind

and bird dispersed tree species over mammal dispersed species. Illinois

Nature preserves Commission, Springfield, IL.

Johnson, F. M. 0.0 0.0 3.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 18.2 5.3 0.0

Quercus rubra L. Majerus (eds.) Proceedings Fifth Central Hardwood Forest

Conference. 2.7 60.5 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 2.5 0.1

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. These were also scaled to 100 and are referred to hereafter as

IVb. C. were absent in

southern Illinois old-fields less than 25 years old (Bazzaz, 1968;


Boggess, W. 1980. 7.71 4.98

Quercus velutina Lam. H., Jr. Edgington for advice, Lyle J. 11.4 8.5 7.8

Quercus rubra L. 0.1 5.3 0.2

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Differing seed dispersal mechanisms in upland forests

(wind, bird, or mammal) are important in determining the ability of

trees to invade an old-field. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Recruitment into larger size classes

is likely limited due to Dutch elm disease mortality, which Bell (1997)

found to be highest in trees with a dbh greater than 26 cm. The

procedure allowed us to examine the influence of individual plots on

overall stand level diversity, making it possible to quantify the

diversity of a single plot while still permitting a comparison of

diversity between stands. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature

Preserves System: Part 2, The Natrual Divisions of Illinois. 0.0 0.3 0.0

Cornus spp. 1990. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which species

occurred / total number of plots), and importance value (IV,

(relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 2.


Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. L. 50: 231-232.

There was an apparent relationship between the VJ values of H’

and distance from original forest border (m) in stand 2. F., H. Forest Regeneration on two old

fields in southwestern Illinois. The floodplains were

dominated by Acer saccharinum L. Succession on abandoned fields in the Shawnee

Hills, southern Illinois. 94: 159-164.

This study is unique for several reasons. Dawson. velutina and Q. Microsite requirements for germination and

establishment of three grass species. also had values reflecting a

high degree of dominance. 8.35 5.86

Quercus velutina Lam. were distributed throughout the stand, not

solely on the poorly drained Sunbury silt loam, indicating a greater

ecological amplitude for this species with respect to soil moisture

conditions. 1.9 0.9 13.9

Fraxinus americana L. 0.1 10.5 0.5

Acer negundo L. 1.4 80.0 6.8

Ulmus rubra Muhl. W. All woody stems greater than 6 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh)

(Root et al., 1971; Boggess and Geis, 1967; Johnson et al., 1978;

Edgington, 1991) within a plot were recorded by species to the nearest

cm dbh, and dead standing trees were also recorded. americana stems in the smaller size classes

(Tables 1 and 2) and its intermediate shade tolerance (Bey, 1990)

suggest that existing elm trees may not have been initial colonizers.

Ulmus americana, however, comprised 9 percent of the stems in the 41 cm

and greater size class in stand 2. 1.5 3.1 18.8

Celtis occidentalis L. 4.6 6.8 3.6

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 35.8 26.3 4.9

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Ecological diversity and its measurement.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. The average and maximum distance from a plot

to forest border for stand 1 were 47 m and 99 m, respectively, as

opposed to average distance of 103 m and maximum distance of 204 m for

stand 2.


Bell, D. In: Silvics of North America, Volume

2, Burns, R. In the

11-20 cm size class Ulmus spp., Q. 92(1): 35-46.

Root, T. 118(4): 365-376.

Less forest border and the greater width of stand 2 probably

favored wind-dispersed species compared to mammal-dispersed species. and D. Bulletin of

the Torrey Botanical Club. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. 1986. Stand 1 was narrower

and had a greater percentage of its perimeter bordered by forest at

the time of agricultural abandonment.


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Washington DC: U.S. We further hypothesized that

species diversity and the abundance of mammal dispersed tree species

would decrease with increasing distance from forest borders. 0.7 0.7 1.3

Acer negundo L. 27.6 27.6 14.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. L. The H’ values are

significantly different (df=75; p-value0.0001) indicating that stand

1 is more diverse than stand 2. Lee. Slatyer. The importance of seed dispersal is often noted, but

with no quantification of the variability associated with seed sources.

Proximity to surrounding forest vegetation has been shown in the present

study to be important as a determinant of species diversity and

composition during old-field succession. McCune. The

Shannon index of diversity and the Simpson index of dominance are

heterogeneity indices that combine information on both species richness

and species evenness (Peet, 1974). 3.32 2.30

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. Koch. J. Mill. Effects of a prescribed burn on tree- and

herb-layer vegetation in a post oak (Quercus stellata) dominated

flatwoods. Thomas, and C. in

undisturbed upland forests (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971;

Bell, 1974; 1980). The measurement of species diversity. The D values are also

significantly different (df=49; p-value0.0001). 10.4 7.8 0.3

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. E. 71(4): 412-419.

Dykstra, M. T. Adkisson. from stand 2 had

significantly lower values for all three variables. K.

Schneid. P. Urbana, IL 61801 phone: (217) 333-9418; email: sbrettha@uiuc.edu

Vankat, J. Elsewhere at Allerton Park and along the Sangamon River,

small diameter Ulmus spp. saccharinum from stand 2 had significantly higher values for the

three variables than in stand 1. Each time the index is

calculated, one plot is systematically removed from the sample. H. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Cornus spp. 1988. 7.2 6.5 4.2

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Koch 0.1 7.5 0.6

Quercus alba L. E. H., and R. imbricaria, and S. Department of

Civil Engineering. The

greater mass of Q. IV. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. 1991. and R. americana had the highest IVa

(Table 2). M. 1971. In

addition, Quercus imbricaria may be primarily dispersed by the blue jay

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) (Darley-Hill and Johnson, 1981; Harrison and

Werner, 1984; Johnson and Webb, 1989; Johnson et al., 1993; Johnson et

al., 1997) which prefers small acorns (Scarlett and Smith, 1991) and is

known to take the small Q. 1994. 12.60 * 24.91

Juglans nigra L. In: J. For

example, A. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 3.3 2.9 0.0

Morus rubra L. K. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. In: J. Considering that the

seeds of oak and hickory species are commonly distributed by mammals and

gravity, more surrounding forest cover with seed and associated

dispersal agents seemed to increase the chances for these species to

successfully disperse into the site. acorns relative to

the seed mass of wind dispersed species may afford the Quercus spp.

seeds an advantage in penetrating through grassland plant communities

(Jokela and Sawtelle, 1985; Fowler, 1986; Hamrick and Lee, 1987). 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh

AT&T Debuts Exclusive Xperia(TM) TL, Sony’s Best in Mobile Camera Technology, HD Viewing and NFC Connectivity.


Operational times are affected by network preferences, type of SIM card,

connected accessories and various activities e.g. Album will be especially appealing to photo takers with

features such as:

To make enjoying content across devices even easier, Xperia TL

supports ‘One-touch’ connectivity through NFC. Upgradable to Android

version 4.1 (Jelly Bean) following launch.

* 13MP quick launch-fast capture camera that goes from sleep to snap

in just over a second

(c) 2012 ATT Intellectual Property.

* Improved layout of photo and video folders, both in device and


DALLAS, Oct. Sony is the trademark or

registered trademark of Sony Corporation. 3) Actual

size of screen is approximately 4.55″.

Key Specs for Xperia TL:

* Geo-mapping in satellite and traditional map views

* Latest generation 1.5GHz dual core processor for improved battery

efficiency and fast graphics performance

Xperia TL gives you the ultimate in HD with a superb 4.6-inch HD

display (1080 x 720), powered by the Mobile BRAVIA Engine for razor

sharp clarity and brilliance. Mobile

broadband not available in all areas. With other carriers, when you travel outside of

their LTE coverage area, you may be on a much slower 3G network.


Photo enthusiasts will delight in the impressive images taken with

Xperia TL’s 13-megapixel primary camera that brings even the

smallest of details to life. This 4G LTE smartphone takes connected entertainment to the next

level with new Sony media applications.

Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. 4G speeds delivered

by LTE, or HSPA+ with enhanced backhaul, where available. Kit

contents and colour options may differ from market to market. ATT has two 4G networks

that work together for customers, LTE and HSPA+ with enhanced backhaul.

That means ATT customers are able to enjoy a widespread, ultra-fast

and consistent 4G experience on their compatible device as they move in

and out of LTE areas. The viewing experience on Xperia TL is

accentuated by a stylish, slim form factor that emphasizes the display.

For those looking to take their content from their smartphone screen to

the TV screen, Xperia TL connects through MHL or wirelessly through


Xperia TL includes three preloaded Sony media applications, Walkman,

Movies, and Album, introducing a consistent user interface across Sony

devices. under the ATT brand

and not by ATT Inc. LTE is a trademark of

ETSI. Xperia is the trademark or

registered trademark of Sony Mobile Communications AB. All rights reserved. and the products and

services provided by ATT subsidiaries and affiliates is available

at http://www.att.com . Android (TM) is a trademark of Google Inc. ATT, the ATT logo and

all other marks contained herein are trademarks of ATT Intellectual

Property and/or ATT affiliated companies. All other

trademarks or registered trademarks are property of their respective


* More than 25 editing options

Sony Entertainment Network services are subject to availability by

region, please see www.sonyentertainmentnetwork.com for more details.

** Xperia arc S and Xperia arc are winners of the EISA (European

Imaging and Sound Association) award for European Camera Phone

2011-2012. Or follow our news on Twitter at


About ATT

ATT customers have access to the nation’s largest 4G

network***, covering 275 million people. 1, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — ATT* today announced plans

to offer Xperia TL, the latest Sony smartphone bringing Sony’s best

HD experiences, easy connectivity with ‘One-touch’ sharing

enabled by NFC (Near Field Communications) and award-winning** arc

design. Using near field communication technology, SmartTags

let you store device preferences for a variety of locations and

situations – like opening and controlling volume on the music player if

you head out for a run, turning on GPS and Bluetooth in the car or

turning on your alarm and silencing your ringer at night.


Xperia TL Will be Featured in the Upcoming James Bond Cinema Release


* 4.6″ HD Reality Display powered by the Mobile BRAVIA


***4G speeds not available everywhere. All rights reserved.

* Available in Black

* Full 1080p HD video recording and a 720p HD front camera for the

highest quality content . Learn more at att.com/network.

Sony “make.believe” and Bravia are trademarks or

registered trademarks of Sony Corporation. Xperia arc was announced at CES in January

2011 followed up by the announcement of Xperia arc S announced at IFA


Limited 4G LTE availability in select markets. To

get started with experiencing NFC, Xperia TL comes with one Xperia

SmartTag in box. Learn more at

att.com/network. Now, you can

conveniently and instantaneously enjoy your music and photos across an

array of NFC enabled devices by simply touching one to another to

establish a wireless connection without a cumbersome pairing process. Limited 4G LTE availability

in select markets. Xperia arc is also the winner of the prestigious red dot

Product Design Award 2011.

Additional information about ATT Inc. “PlayStation is a

registered trademark or a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.

Xperia is a trademark or registered trademark of Sony Mobile

Communications AB. LTE is a trademark of ETSI. Camera capabilities are

accurate as the date of this release.

* MHL connectivity for viewing content on a big screen without the

need for a charger

* Android version 4.0.4 (Ice Cream Sandwich). playing games. The full

range of accessories may not be available in every market. Deployment

ongoing. All other marks

contained herein are the property of their respective owners.

* Easy connectivity with ‘One-touch’ function enabled by


COPYRIGHT 2012 PR Newswire Association LLC

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

*ATT products and services are provided or offered by

subsidiaries and affiliates of ATT Inc. This ATT news release and other

announcements are available at http://www.att.com/newsroom and as part

of an RSS feed at www.att.com/rss . Compatible device and data plan required. Plus, both the rear and

front-facing cameras deliver HD recording capabilities for vivid video

capture on the go.

1) Facts and features may vary depending on local variant. This high resolution camera captures

quality images swiftly with its quick launch feature, going from standby

mode (sleep) to first shot in just 1.5 seconds,[sup.1] making sure

life’s unexpected moments are not missed

Many Chinese have Olympics as their names by James Larry

In India where cricket is treated like a religion, many parents have kept the first name of the master blaster batsman Sachin Tendulkar as their sons names. Thats not all!

Worlds best golf player Tiger Woods, too, has a poignant story behind his name. Names have great significance and meanings. .

It has been reported that during and after 2000 when China was preparing to bid to host the now upcoming Beijing 2008 Games, around 3,491 people named themselves as Aoyun, which means Olympics. His father had named him after a Vietnam soldier whom he befriended with during that war. Same way you are bound to find many kids with Rahul as their name. People keep names for different reasonssome name their kids after political heroes, film stars and great personalities and after sports stars. This happened when Rahul Dravid, was considered the batting backbone of Indian cricket team.

The Beijing Games effect: Many Chinese have “Olympics” as their names

 by: James Larry

The cute looking five creatures, Bei, Jing Jing, Huan Huan, Ying Ying, and Ni Ni, that form the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games mascot called Fuwa, have such an indelible effect on the Chinese residents that many kept their names as their own.

There is nothing weird in this. Now, the condition is so pathetic for that same man that he finds it tough to get a place in the playing 11 of Indian cricket team.

And now, if anyone calls the name of these five creatures in China, it is expected that there will more than 4000 people who will come running around you looking for the people who called their names.

Go to any nation, one would definitely find many people who have been named after their parents favorite sports idols or there will those fanatic fans who have adopted their favorite sport stars names in order to show their respect for those players.

Who said whats in the name? Ask those 7, 491 Chinese people who have named themselves or their kids after the Olympics or with the names of five creatures that are part of the 2008 Beijing Games mascotFuwa

Trang chủ | Yahoo Hỏi & Dap

Con th?y anh trai con không, t?p th? hình g?n 5 n?m r?i, chi?u nào c?ng ?i, v?y mà b?p tay anh con có g?ng h?t c? lên thì c?ng ch? b?ng c? tay nó. Con bé ?y ch?ng nh?t, ch?ng nhì, c?ng ch?ng ba, m? ngh? ph?i x?p nó vào d?ng ngo?i c?, ngo?i h?ng, t?c là v??t ra kh?i m?i tiêu chí x?p h?ng.

Sau ?ây là m?t câu chuy?n vui v? ?? tài nàng dâu t??ng lai, chúc c? nhà m?t ngày vui v? !

Con trai à! M? ?ành ph?i nói r?ng m? không ?ng cái con bé mà con d?n v? ra m?t hôm tr??c.. Th?y con, th?y cháu mình có nguy c? sau này b? b?o hành, con b?o m? sao có th? b? m?c, làm ng??

Không ch? l?ng và eo to thôi ?âu, c? ng?c, b?ng, tay chân, tóm l?i là toàn thân, ch? nào c?a nó c?ng to. V? ??p c?a m?t ng??i ph? n? ???c ?ánh giá qua 3 tiêu chí: “Nh?t dáng, nhì da, th? ba mông ng?c”….

hi?n th? thêm

Các b?n ??c ti?p truy?n ? d??i câu h?i nhé !

Không ?ng tr??c tiên là ? hình th?c. Th? nh?ng m? ?? ý mãi c?ng không th?y cái eo c?a con bé ?y ?âu. V? ??p c?a m?t ng??i ph? n? ???c ?ánh giá qua 3 tiêu chí: “Nh?t dáng, nhì da, th? ba mông ng?c”. Còn cái c? chân c?a nó, con th?y có kém gì cái b?p ?ùi c?a b? con không?

R?i lúc m? b?c gh? ??ng lên tr??c bàn th?, m? nh? nó ??a giúp qu? mít lên ?? m? th?p h??ng, bà n?i con m?t kém, th?y nó ôm qu? mít tr??c ng?c thì c? t?m t?c khen: “Con bé này kh?e quá! Mít to v?y mà nó ôm ???c li?n m?t lúc nh?ng 3 qu?”. M? s? n?u con l?y nó thì cháu n?i c?a m? sau này không ch?t vì s?c s?a thì c?ng ch?t vì b? ti ?è con ?i!

Không ?ng tr??c tiên là ? hình th?c. L?ng nó to nh? l?ng trâu, nó là th?t ?áy l?ng trâu.

“Nh?ng cô th?t ?áy l?ng trâu, v?a túm ??u ch?ng v?a ?á mông con”.

B?n thích m?t ng??i v?, m?t nàng dâu t??ng lai nh? th? nào?

Sau ?ây là m?t câu chuy?n vui v? ?? tài nàng dâu t??ng lai, chúc c? nhà m?t ngày vui v? !

Con trai à! M? ?ành ph?i nói r?ng m? không ?ng cái con bé mà con d?n v? ra m?t hôm tr??c.

Các c? d?y r?ng: “Nh?ng cô th?t ?áy l?ng ong, v?a khéo chi?u ch?ng v?a khéo nuôi con”

Fox News Appalled That Jay-Z And Beyonce Bailed Out Protestors

Good for Jay-Z and his wife for sticking up for the marginalized of our society.It’s no surprise that Fox News would react exactly as they have: with disdain and disgust for anyone who believes that yes, black lives matter.

Steve Doocy brought up the blackness lawlessness of both scenes in Baltimore and Ferguson, which were the result of years of outrage over insanely racist cops.Two tragedies brought these communities together in protest and these three pundits are just dumbfounded by the kindness of two famous people.They can’t imagine that these folks could have been arrested unjustly and/or they are deserving of a second chance.After all, most of these lawless protesters are black and some may have defaced some property, so no sympathy allowed!

Honestly, I almost expected them to follow their question with, “while poor white supremacist bikers sit in a Waco jail,” but that would be too obviously racist.At Fox and Friends, Doocy, Hasselbeck and Kilmeade prefer their racism just a touch more subtle.

Fox News Appalled That Jay-Z And Beyoncé Bailed Out Protestors | Crooks and Liars

[Reuse options]Click here for reuse options!

This news is just beyond the level of comprehension for the white hosts on the Fox and Friends curvy couch.How could Jay-Z and his wife, Beyonc?, secretly wire tens of thousands of dollars to bail out protesters in Baltimore AND Ferguson?

The pusillanimous pundits forget that there were also quite a few people who were taken into custody for simply being in the wrong place at the wrong time, with no crime having been committed.Many of the over 200 people spent days in jail without any formal charges.

Unibet Group plc: Fun88 Selects Kambi Sports Solutions for Pool Betting

With Fun88 joining the pool through Kambi, the

network further strengthens its strong position as a global Pool Betting


Unibet (STO:UNIB) was founded in 1997 and is an online gambling company

listed on NASDAQ OMX Nordic Exchange in Stockholm.

Unibet is a member of the EGBA, European Gaming and Betting Association,

RGA, Remote Gambling Association in theUK and is audited and certified

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Kambi Sports Solutions has signed a two year agreement to deliver its

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provides services in 27 languages through www.unibet.com,






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Supertoto consists of a number of weekly coupons where the challenge is

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Today, Unibet has more than 6.5 million customers in over 100 countries. These bets offer consistently high potential

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“Fun88 focus primarily on the Casino and the Sportsbook products. Supertoto14

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Supertoto and Superscore are Kambi’s Pool Betting products, where

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