Top China Winter Destinations, Where to Travel in Winter in China?

Hainan is overflowing with the appeal of an island paradise: golden beaches, sea, waves and seaside holiday resorts. Winters are moist, but there is little snow and days are overcast. Other famous warm travel destinations include Guangzhou and Hong Kong in south China.

Winter Tours of China

We recommend being there for China’s biggest festival, but bear in mind transport is packed for at least two weeks either side of the date. For winter travelers, it is not unlike Hawaii in the US, which serves as a favorite tropical oasis to escape the frozen winter. Famous tourist cities in Yunan Province: Kunming, Dali, Lijiang, Xishuangbanna Take China Highlighs Yunnan Tours to have a warm winter vacation in Yunnan. Fanciful and elaborate ice sculptures in teh shapes of animals, plants, buildings or motifs taken from legends sparkle in the frigid air. Covered below are some of China’s top beaches. Flower stalls and markets appear throughout the city. China’s ski resorts are concentrated in Northeast China and the region around Beijing.

The most recommended tour: Essence of China Tour

However, there are a few in West China such as the Xiling Ski Resort in Chengdu. You will have more space and time to enjoy your trip to the full..

Top China Winter Destinations

Culture Experience

Winter in the Southeast

Mt. See below for the most famous beaches on Hainan Island. Emei

Take a China Highlights New Year Tour and celebrate an authentic Chinese New Year in Beijing as locals do.

Winter trips to Harbin should also include the Siberian Tiger Park and nearby ski resorts, and a trip to see the enchanting rime scenery of Jilin.

Winters in Guangzhou are famous for flowers. There are even bicycles designed to be ridden on the ice.

Mt. Yabuli Ski Resorts and the ski resorts around Beijing are the most popular among winter travelers. In winter the mountain is very quiet, free from the tourist crowds, allowing winter travelers to enjoy the mountain, which is a blanket of white with a capping of snow-laden trees.

Seaside Winter Escape in Hainan Island

Normally, there are fewer travelers as most Chinese don’t travel during this time for various reasons. Emei, in Southwest China’s Sichuan Province, is known for its sweeping cliffs, high reaching peaks, gushing waterfalls, gurgling springs, towering ancient trees and ancient temples. The Yellow Mountains is one of the best places to view snowy landscapes and rime and glaze scenery in China.

Winters in northeastern China are long, cold, and snowy. The province of Heilongjiang borders Russia and its capital, Harbin, is called “Ice City.” January temperatures average 10 °F, -12 °C, during the day.

Hong Kong’s winters are comparatively mild, even warm. Temperatures usually stay above freezing, but will feel colder due to humidity. Sun Island hosts a Snow Sculpture Exposition and is the location of the largest indoor ice and snow art museum.

Despite the fact that ski resorts in China are currently still only beginning to be discovered by foreign travelers, winter travelers to China are increasingly opting for China’s ski slopes as an alternative diversion. See China Highlights Beach Holidays

Hong Kong’s role as a global, sophisticated city has led it to embrace Western Christmas celebrations. Bright red Kapok blossoms, the official flower of Guangzhou, bloom all over.

Harbin hosts ice and snow art festivals every winter. See more reasons below.

If you believe in the saying, “There is no such thing as bad weather, only bad clothing”, then China is yours for a bargain in the low season. In addition, there are many places of stunning natural beauty in China that have mild weather all year round, so there is always something compelling to see or fun to do in China during winter, regardless of the tourist’s specific interests.

Chinese New Year Cultural Activities

The Miao and Dong minority peoples hold their own traditional celebrations to celebrate the Chinese New Year. Take a China Highlights Ski Tour and have fun.

The rime scenery of Jilin is one of China’s four natural wonders.

Fewer travelers means most hotels and airlines offer great deals to attract customers; some airlines even offer 80% off flights. Attractions and resorts often sell low-season entrance tickets.

China’s far south falls within the tropics and these places don’t really experience a winter. Tourists enjoy climbing the Great Wall and viewing the winter landscape in peace without the crowds.

Why Travel in China’s Winter Low Season

China winter destinations map

Tourists can enjoy popular Shanghai attractions in the wintertime as long as they pack plenty of warm clothing and reserve heated hotel rooms. In fact going in the “winter” would be better time to visit these places for you if you don’t relish enduring the sweltering summer heat.

Visiting China during the low season may be just the thing for you. Restaurants serve traditional Christmas fare and stores are filled with shoppers.

Most of the most popular destinations in China (the Great Wall, Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, Guilin, Hong Kong, Hangzhou, Chengdu,…) are still very accessible in the low season, but without the seething crowds of Chinese tour groups!

Shanghai experiences milder weather than Beijing. Each year at Christmas skyscrapers are lit with Christmas lights and lavish displays are set up in shops and public spaces. The winter season in places like Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province, is very short, usually lasting from late December through January.

Recommended tour: Harbin’s Ice Wonderland Tour

The Yellow Mountains

. Winter travelers are fond of Yunnan because of its mild weather. Visiting during the cooler winter season is a welcome alternative to trips in hot and humid summers. Hotel prices also go up during the holiday period.

If you like it drier and not hot winter might be preferable for you, as it is the driest time of the year all over China, particularly in the north, where a few snow flurries is all you’ll get.

Huangshan is famous for its marvelous and beautiful scenery. The winter season is from December to February. During the festival, the the whole park is changed into a world of ice sculptures and lanterns. Ice skating is very popular at the lakes in Beijing’s parks. Colorful dress, folk performances and interesting activities can be seen during January or February.

The nearby sections of the Great Wall remain open to visitors during the wintertime. See China Highlights China Winter Vacation Deals to appreciate the Ice Lantern Festival in Harbin.

There are various cultural activities held in the temples and parks of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday usually from late January to early February. This is best time of the year to experience Chinese culture.

Harbin Ice And Snow Festival

For more on what weather to expect around China, and tourism suggestions, see:

Visit Xishuangbanna for minorities and rain forest, Sanya and Haikou for tropical island scenery and beaches, and the thriving Pearl River cities of Hong Kong, Macau, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou

Winter in Beijing

Cooler (Cold) Weather with Less Rain

Take a 3-Day Yellow Mountains Winter Tour and enjoy the Yellow Mountains in quiet winter.

Fewer Travelers, Less Crowds

Sun, water and beaches are what travelers enjoy about Hainan. If however you would like to do something a bit different, all you need to do is let us know and we can tailor-make an individual China winter tour for you.

Winter Scenes and Winter Sports

Winter in the Northeast

Like in Hong Kong, winter temperatures in the southeast are quite moderate, but feel chillier due to the humidity. The Ice Festival fills Zhaolin Park with magnificent ice sculptures. This is typical of southern China winter weather.

Beijing experiences very cold, but usually dry, long winters. In winter, the mountains becomes a world of frost and ice with silver boughs and rocks everywhere. Average temperatures are below freezing, but frequent sunny days are perfect for sightseeing. The tradition of ice lanterns dates back hundreds of years. Average winter temperatures are around a moderate 60 °F, 16 °C, and there is very little rain.

Below is a list of China’s prime winter destinations, with descriptions that will hopefully inspire you to choose China for your winter vacation this year.

Winter in Hong Kong

The Ice And Snow Festival is undoubtedly Harbin’s most famous attraction, held in Zhaolin Park every winter from January 5th to the end of February. Its varied landscape, with terrain ranging from topical rainforest to snow-capped peaks, never fails to allure even the most fastidious travelers. Winter begins in early November and extends into March. The capital typifies northern China winter weather.

China Ski Resorts

If you want to take in some characteristically Chinese mountain scenery in the snow, then we recommend safer, more-developed locations like the Yellow Mountains and Mount Emei.

Winter in Shanghai

Winter Around China

Mountain Snowscapes

Warm Winter Locations

 Great Deals on Hotels and Airlines

Southeast Guizhou

Lakes, canals, and fountains are frequently frozen solid. Listed below are some of China’s top ski resorts.

Although China may not yet be a preferred winter destination for most foreign travelers in terms of specific winter activities (though China actually has some decent ski slopes, as our extensive ex-pat community can affirm), it does have its getaway beaches where one can escape winter entirely. Find below the most famous ski resorts in China. Chinese New Year celebrations towards the end of January, or as late as March, include the bell-striking ceremony at the notable Longhua temple, fireworks displays, and the lantern parade.

Yunnan is without doubt one of the most tempting travel destinations in China. Far less tourist crowding, cheaper hotels and flights, winter scenery and activities, and a cool (cold), dry (drier) climate may interest you. The colder weather is a trade-off against lower prices for hotels, transport, and even gate tickets.

China’s low season begins in November and ends in March (excluding Chinese New Year, when it seems that the whole nation is traveling).

You can enjoy skiing in Beijing or Harbin, enjoy winter scenery, or experience Harbin’s Ice Festival.

Our winter tours showcase the best of China in the cheaper low season

The 25 most beloved CEOs in America

4 spot.

Employees at these companies have three of America’s most beloved CEOs. Most beloved CEOs in America 2015 – Business Insider

To be eligible for the final ranking, each CEO had to run a company with at least 1,000 employees, and had to have at least 100 approval ratings, senior management ratings, and company reviews between April 2014 and April 2015.

Can’t stand the big boss at work? Try getting a job at Google, Nike, or Goldman Sachs.

That’s according to a new report by Glassdoor, an online jobs and careers community.

See the top 25 here >>View as one pageSee the top 25 here >>

Respondents were asked to rate their CEO and say whether or not they approve of the way he or she is leading the company. . The 2015 Highest-Rated CEOs report relied solely on the input of employees who elected to participate anonymously in an online company review survey.

shutterstock_144353680Kobby Dagan / Shutterstock.comFacebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg landed the No

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Tokyo Racecourse – Boston Asia Travel

The grounds are open on non-racing days and can be enjoyed year round.

Grounds

Races Held at Tokyo Racecourse

Introduction

Tokyo racecourse is located in Fuchu, Tokyo and is operated by the Japanese Racing Association (JRA). The racecourse can also be accessed from the JR Musashino Line / Nambu Line Fuchu-Honmachi Station to the West Gate using the special overpass. From this station you can access the special overpass which will lead you to the main gate of Tokyo racecourse. The renovations included adding the largest viewing screen in the world and upgrading the grandstand. The entrance fee on racing days is ? 200. Tokyo racecourse has the capacity to hold 223,000 cheering fans.

How to Get To Tokyo Racecourse

Tokyo race track is easily accessible from the Keiba Seimon Mae Station. For fans who want to see the winners up close you might want to try and get a spot by the winner’s circle. However, before placing your bet, you may want to view the horses at the paddock. The winner’s circle is located to the left of the finish line and is the perfect spot to take photos of winning Thoroughbreds.

Betting points are located on the grounds where you can place bets and receive winnings using automatic machines. The riding center is a good spot for families to go and visit horses and for children to have a pony ride. This is an excellent place to visit for those interested in the culture of horse racing. You can change to this station by transferring from the Keio line at Higashi-Fuchu to the Keio Line Fuchu Keiba. On non-racing days there is no entrance fee.

The racecourse has three courses including the grass, dirt and steeplechase course. Racing held on the grass course gives viewers the closest sight of the horses. The grounds were built in 1933 and went through a seven-year renovation from 2000-2007. Guides about betting are available in English at the information desk.

For more information on horse racing in Japan please visit http://japanracing.jp/en/index.html.. If you are to go to the racecourse for the first time on one of these race days be prepared for a large crowd!

Upon entering the main complex of Tokyo racecourse you feel as if you are in a shopping mall. JRA’s “Turvey Gift shop” carries a lovely selection of merchandise of horse racing items including: plushies, stationary, mugs, tote bags, cell phone charms, key chains, books, and calendars.

The JRA racing museum located by the east gate is a nice place to visit to see the paintings and statues of many famous Thoroughbreds from Japan’s racing history. Horses for the next upcoming race are walked around the paddock and fans can see which horses look ready to run. With grassy spots to have a picnic and watch the races, it is a good time to relax and spend time with friends. Some of the most famous races include the Tokyo Yushun, the autumn Tenno Sho, and the Japan Cup. Throughout the building you will see paintings and displays of horse related items. The jump course used for steeplechase racing is the hardest to see, but the excitement can be viewed on the large screens.

Tokyo racecourse holds grass and dirt turf racing including G1 and G2 races. There are many food shops and restaurants where you can get a meal or a beer to drink. There is park next to the riding center with a horse-themed pirate ship where parents can watch their children play.

Overall, the racecourse grounds are a good place to come and escape urban Tokyo. The dirt track is the middle course and you can see the races as long as you get a spot near the rail

Baltimore Mayor Stephanie Rawlings- Blake wins volunteering Super Bowl bet – Baltimore nonprofit

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When the Ravens won the Super Bowl, Mayor Rawlings- Blake won a day of volunteerism. The 2012 Super Bowl Champion Baltimore Ravens have kept her very busy. When the Ravens defeated the New England Patriots, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino had to give promised food to Mayor Rawlings- Blake. If you are interested in learning more about area volunteer opportunities, you can click here to read about the United Way of Central Maryland. She has participated in friendly wagers with the mayors of Denver, Boston and San Francisco. You can interact with Mayor Rawlings- Blake by clicking here for twitter and here to contact her office. Lee will be hosted by Mayor Rawlings-Blake for a day of service with Americorps. San Francisco Mayor Edwin M

W88 warhead program performs successful tests

“The weapon is not required to function after that, just to stay safe,” Edwards said.

A month later, the first drop test of the W88 ALT 370 program mimicked a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface to develop evidence that it would remain safe during an accident. Sandia and its partners are analyzing results to validate requirements and radar design.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. It also represented a milestone: the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

The new radar functioned as expected after launch on a Trident II missile from a Navy submarine, Edwards said. An abnormal environment is one that is unexpected, such as an accident.

Sandia will use vibration and shock measurements from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon, he said. Using an unarmed re-entry body, Sandia conducted the test in partnership with LANL, KCP and Pantex at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon, making the test as realistic as possible.

The two successful tests, which were conducted this summer, provide data for the program, the W88 ALT 370 (alteration), to move forward, said Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities.

The June CRAFT test was the first of several planned flight tests to demonstrate the upgraded system’s performance. It also will use the information to validate computer models designed to apply the results to other drop scenarios, since it’s not possible to replicate every possible accident in tests.. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

The first flight and drop tests for the latest variant of the W88 nuclear warhead are providing data for Sandia National Laboratories to validate designs, improve computer modeling and update component specifications.

It was the W88 program’s first abnormal drop test since the system’s original qualification test in 1987. CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels.

Explore further:

Evaluating powerful batteries for modular grid energy storage

Sandia National Laboratories performed a drop test for the W88 ALT 370 program, designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface

Irish Church needs ‘reality check’

That sharply compared to the cities where the yes campaign never doubted their support.

In his appeal for a no vote the church’s most senior figure In Irelandspecifically recognised the love shared between same sex couples.

The archbishop personally voted “No” arguing that gay rights should be respected “without changing the definition of marriage”.

The couple, who have been together 10 years, said marriage was especially important for them as they have children.

Out of 43 constituencies, only the largely rural Roscommon-South Leitrim had a majority of “no” votes.

Church in Ireland needs ‘reality check’ after gay marriage vote – BBC News

‘Message’

“I appreciate how gay and lesbian men and women feel on this day. I think it is a social revolution.”

Same-sex marriage is now legal in 20 countries worldwide. There was also a generational divide – with the yes campaign capturing the interest and enthusiasm of young people in a way that few elections do.

line

AnalysisA tearful couple

By BBC’s Ireland correspondent Chris Buckler

In Ireland debates about morality tend to be rooted in religion.

“It means a lot in this country to be married and to have that status for your family,” Ms Cullen said.

“We won’t begin again with a sense of renewal, with a sense of denial.

Now that the proposal has been passed, a marriage between two people of the same sex will have the same status under the Irish constitution as a marriage between a man and a woman.

This means the first actual marriages are unlikely to take place until September.

The government must bring in a new law, the Marriage Bill 2015, to give effect to the amendment and it says it hopes to do that by the time the Irish parliament breaks up in the summer.. Some living abroad even returned home to Ireland simply to visit the ballot box.

Ms Cullen proposed to her partner live on BBC Radio 5 Live on Sunday.

The archbishop told the Irish broadcaster RT?: “We [the Church] have to stop and have a reality check, not move into denial of the realities. I’m saying there’s a big challenge there to see how we get across the message of the Church,” he added. The discussion about same sex marriage was no exception.

One of Ireland’s most senior Catholic clerics has called for the Church to take a “reality check” following the country’s overwhelming vote in favour of same-sex marriage.

Diarmuid Martin, the archbishop of Dublin, said the Church in Ireland needed to reconnect with young people.

The yes vote means an amendment will be made to Article 41 of the constitution, stating that being of the same sex is no longer an impediment to marriage.

The Catholic Church is not immune from the influence of an increasingly liberal Ireland. That they feel this is something that is enriching the way they live.

They will be recognised as a family and be entitled to the constitutional protection for families.

However, married gay people will now have a constitutional standing that can only be removed by another popular vote.

Civil partnerships for same-sex couples have been legal in Ireland since 2010, giving couples legal protection which could be changed by the government.

Ireland is the first country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage through a popular vote, and its referendum was held 22 years after homosexual acts were decriminalised in the Republic of Ireland.

The referendum found 62% were in favour of changing the constitution to allow gay and lesbian couples to marry.

The first gay marriages are now likely to take place in the early autumn.

Reaction to ‘yes’ vote

grey lineThousands of people celebrate in Dublin Castle Square as the result of the referendum is relayed on 23 MayCelebrations started at Dublin Castle when the results were announced

According to the Irish Times, there will be no new civil partnerships from the day the law comes into effect, and although civil partners will retain their existing rights, there will be no automatic upgrade from partnership to marriage.

Among those voicing their approval of the outcome was UK Prime Minister David Cameron who tweeted: “Congratulations to the people of Ireland, after voting for same-sex marriage, making clear you are equal if you are straight or gay.”

The Catholic Church after all still has much influence in Ireland and the no vote was strongest in rural areas where church attendance figures tend to be higher.

lineline

What the ‘yes’ vote means

The Republic of Ireland has a written constitution which can only be changed by referendum.

“I ask myself, most of these young people who voted yes are products of our Catholic school system for 12 years.

Feargha N? Bhroin and Linda Cullen were among those who were pleased at the result of the referendum.

That is a softening of language and in its own way a sign of wider change.

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In total, 1,201,607 people voted in favour of same-sex marriage, while 734,300 voted against

6-pack abs? | Yahoo Answers

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Source(s):

Tree species diversity and composition in relation to forest borders in two old-field successional stands at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA.

0.0 0.0 2.6

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419-428.

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Urbana-Champaign Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

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Cornus spp. J. Also in stand 2

Gleditsia triacanthos had significantly lower density and Carya

cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. 0.13 * 0.01

Quercus alba L. E. L. D. As succession progresses, tree density begins to

increase further from the forest border until eventually the entire

field is stocked (Myster and Pickett, 1992). 1978. Ecology. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Viburnum prunifolium L. 4.42 3.51

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Total 321.2 301.1 110.9

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Species 31-40 cm 41+ cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. imbricaria and U. Quercus imbricaria sprouts (Dolan, 1994), and sprouting from

root systems of seedlings that developed during the pasture phase might

explain Q. 0.2 35.0 1.9

Malus spp. 0.0 18.4 0.7

Platanus occidentalis L. Indicators of

past agricultural use included an abrupt soil structure change (granular

to subangular blocky) at depths of 13 cm to 25 cm, non-pedogenic mixing

of the A and B horizons, and evidence of compaction in the lower A

horizon.

Fowler, N. 3.4 1.9 0.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Stand 2 had 50 percent of its border forested along its

northern boundary. 1.0 1.3 0.7

Viburnum prunifolium L. were the most important species. combined made up almost

69 percent of the stems in this size class. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science.

83(3): 128148.

Hermes, J. The

[R.sup.2] value for the relationships with distance to forest border in

the wider stand were 0.30 for diversity, 0.32 for density, 0.34 for

basal area, and 0.32 for importance value for species having seed

dispersed primarily by animals. A. 0.3 28.9 1.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:

801-807.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

A Shannon index of diversity (H’=-[summation] [p.sub.i] 1n

[p.sub.i] where pi equals the proportion of importance for the ith

species) and Simpson index of dominance (D=[summation][p.sub.i] 2 where

[p.sub.i] equals the proportion of importance for the ith species) were

calculated for each stand using the importance values from individual

plots calculated with relative density and relative basal area. 0.3 0.6 0.0

Viburnum prunifolium L. Quercus imbricaria. The two

stands were tested for differences with t-tests using the VP values for

both H’ and D. Seed

dispersal by the blue jay, which, unlike most birds, caches acorns in

the soil and under litter, could explain Q. and J. Gradient trends in the streamside forest of

central Illinois. The distance to nearest forested border in 1936 was determined

from aerial photographs, border forests being defined as those

contiguous areas having at least 50 percent canopy closure. ed. In the

present study we test these hypotheses and describe the species

composition and structure of the two successional forest stands.

Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. The physiological ecology of plant succession.

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 1.3 84.2 8.2

Ulmus americana L. 0.0 0.0 1.6

Prunus spp. The Botanical Review. 49.7 28.3 5.2

Quercus velutina Lam. Brownfield Woods, Illinois: present

composition and changes in community structure. Importance values were also calculated

for each individual plot using only relative density and relative basal

area. Vegetation gradients in the

streamside forest of Hickory Creek, Will County, Illinois. 0.0 0.7 0.3

Crataegus spp. 64(1): 27-37.

Mature pasture trees could have provided a seed source within the

field. imbricaria. and D. Soil variability in upland

forest soils at Allerton Park, Illinois. For each stand the

number of stems per ha (density), basal area ([m.sup.2]) per ha, and

frequency were estimated for tree species. Ulmus spp.

currently represent 18.4 percent of the density and 30.2 percent of the

basal area of dead standing trees in stand 1, and 28.3 percent of the

density and 53.7 percent of the basal area of dead standing trees in

stand 2. 0.2 31.6 1.7

Juniperus virginiana L. The most frequent species in both stands were Quercus imbricaria

Michx., Ulmus americana L., Ulmus rubra Muhl., and Juglans nigra L. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Total 327.7 261.7 105.0

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 12.0

Tilia americana L. 0.2 34.2 1.6

Acer saccharinum L. 1991. W. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 31.8 22.9 5.6

Acer saccharinum L. M. cordiformis, C. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Total 38.9 25.6 797.8

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 12.7 1.5 0.0

Cercis canadensis L. and J. 1971. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 1974. L. Prunus serotina, the seed of which is also commonly dispersed

by birds, was more abundant in stand 2 (Table 3).

REFERENCES CITED

Adams, J. 0.3 0.0 0.7

Robinia pseudoacacia L. 107(2):

172-180.

Johnson, W. Shingle oak (Quercus

imbricaria) and its hybrids in Michigan. and K. Fire and

recruitment of Quercus in a postagricultural field. The

[R.sup.2] values of 0.30 for the relationship between distance to forest

and diversity and 0.32, 0.34, and 0.32 for the relationships between

distance to forest and density, basal area, and IVb, respectively, for

species whose seed is dispersed primarily by mammals indicate that seed

dispersal mechanisms influence the variation of stand composition,

diversity and structure more than is commonly suggested. saccharinum dominated the floodplain forests and

poorly drained soils (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971; Bell,

1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Johnson et al., 1978).

Small fields have been shown to have higher species richness closer

to a forest border (Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). 0.6 0.0 0.0

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.6 0.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 1.2 1.9 1.5

Acer negundo L. 1:5,000.

AM-2 [Flight of Piatt County, Illinois]. Boggess. Forest Ecology and Management. imbricaria was the

dominant tree. 0.5 65.0 4.2

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Total 50.7 36.4 781.6

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1.4 80.0 6.8

Total 21.1 1005.0 100.0

Table 3. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. 3.1 1.2 0.6

Tilia americana L. 0.76 0.40

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Wind-dispersed species, followed closely by bird-dispersed

species, often invade old fields in advance of mammal-dispersed species

(Bard, 1952; Buell et al., 1971; Smith, 1975; Christensen and Peet,

1984; Myster and Pickett, 1992; Myster, 1993).

RESULTS

Ashby, W. Thesis

The authors thank John M. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Small Ulmus spp. 0.01 * 0.10

* Significantly different (probability 0.05)

COPYRIGHT 2007 Illinois State Academy of Science

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Aerial photographs from 1936 and maps from 1948 were used to

describe site history and to delineate stands. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which

species occurred / total number of plots), and importance value

(IV, (relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 1.

Density

Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 1991. americana, Prunus serotina Ehrh., and

A. 49(5): 924-936.

Bazzaz, F. macrocarpa, C. In the 21 to 30 cm dbh size class Q. Quercus imbricaria, U. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. imbricaria,

the third most common species. 0.1 5.3 0.4

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. I. 0.06 * 0.02

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1.9 0.9 35.8

Quercus velutina Lam. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Cornus spp. 56: 109-116.

Myster, R. Ecology. 8.5 20.5 7.8

Quercus alba L. Fairland, MD:

International Cooperative Publishing House: 117-131.

Harrison, J. 0.7 68.4 4.1

Quercus rubra L. Oecologia. These stands have

been allowed to succeed naturally without direct anthropogenic disturbance since 1946.

Bell, D. and E. alba outnumbered Q. After

pastures were abandoned the subsequent successional processes were not

altered by tree cutting, mowing, or grazing, which usually occur in the

region. Koch, and Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. At greater distances from

the nearby forest, tree species with longer seed dispersal ranges could

establish earlier during succession, affording them a competitive

advantage. Dykstra (1999) indicates that stand 1 was

a secondary forest and stand 2 was an abandoned field in 1940. nigra. D. and E. 3.1 4.6 3.4

Fraxinus americana L. The ranking of seventh in IVa for A. 9 p.

The soil examinations from both stands showed evidence of past

grazing and in portions there were indications of plowing. The wider tract had more wind and bird dispersed tree species

and relatively fewer animal dispersed species. 0.0 0.0 3.3

Platanus occidentalis L. 0.06 0.04

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.0 0.0 4.9

Tilia americana L. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. S. and J. T. 4.9 2.6 1.3

Cercis canadensis L. A preliminary principal components analysis showed no

relationship between tree species composition and soil types

(unpublished data).

McClain, W. S. 111(982): 1119-1144.

In agricultural regions of the Midwest there are few examples of

uninterrupted succession from old-field to forest. In

stand 1 Q. 0.1 30.0 1.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Harmsen. Both

stands were described as successional forest in 1976 (Jones and Bell,

1976). Koch 2.2 1.2 0.6

Quercus alba L. The Condor. Koch 0.3 0.0 4.3

Quercus alba L. It is unlikely, however, that

there were many residual sprouts from root systems of pasture trees at

the time of agricultural abandonment because cattle browsing usually

eliminates sprouts and clearing the forest for crops typically entailed

the removal of large tree roots and stumps.

The two stands had similar species composition (Tables 1 and 2). They

range from moderately well drained (Xenia) to well drained (Miami and

Russell). These soils were formed under forest vegetation on till plain

in loess, other silty material, and the underlying calcareous loam

glacial till (Martin, 1991).

The critical differences between the stands for the purposes of

this study are the amount of surrounding forest at the time of

abandonment and the configuration of the fields. 13.6 9.9 4.0

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Effects of palatability and dispersal mode on spatial patterns of trees in oldfields. 1991. These means were used in t-tests to

examine differences between stands in ecological values for the selected

species. Rolfe (2),

and Jeffrey O. 0.0 0.0 0.6

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.0 0.6

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra L.

had more stems than the Ulmus spp. 0.6 0.3 2.5

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 1.2

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. L. 119(2): 145-151.

A jack-knifing procedure (Zahl, 1977) was used to calculate the

indices for each stand. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Constraints to tree invasion on a nutrient rich

site during old-field succession. 1984. 0.1 32.5 1.8

Cercis canadensis L. 0.0 0.0 11.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 112(3): 410-418.

Bell, D. Also the

study site is unique in that areas of undisturbed succession in central

Illinois are rare because of the typical history of both timber

harvesting and grazing in secondary forests.

Martin, W. Tree invasion and establishment in old fields

at Hutcheson Memorial Forest. 0.6 0.6 0.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.9 0.0 0.3

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.08 * 0.30

Fraxinus americana L. S. Pelz, and G. Guyon,

Jeremy M. The results of the linear regression analysis, where

VJ=2.41+0.00011*Distance (m), showed a significant relationship with

distance from the forest border (df=39; p-value0.001). B. glabra. This

indicates plots closer to forested border positively influenced the

H’ value for stand 2 and plots far from the border negatively

influenced the H’ value. L. This indicates that

the most common species are more dominant in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Connell, J. Dawson (2)

The study location was Robert Allerton Park in east-central

Illinois (N39[degrees] 59.9′; W88[degrees] 38.7′), along the

Sangamon River in Piatt County, Illinois. Weaver. 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 22.8 10.4 5.9

Prunus serotina Ehrh. T. In: Becker, N. H. Crow, and M. 596 p.

In the old-field successional forest stands examined in this study,

proximity to forest border was significantly associated with increased

tree species diversity and differences in species composition. and J. 1997. 1993. Although separated by an upland forest similar in composition to the

forest surrounding Stand 1, stand 2 has greater proximity to floodplain

and transitional forest seed sources than Stand 1.

Zahl, S. Jackknifing an index of diversity. 1992. had significantly lower IVb and basal

area relative to stand 1. Patil, W. L. Pickett. Canadian Journal of

Botany. Field work was

conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 and 1999. The estimate of D for stand 1 is 0.06;

the estimate of D for stand 2 is 0.13. M. 0.1 17.5 1.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 1999. American Journal of Botany. Seed dispersal affects the timing of

invasion and distribution of individual species (Bard, 1952; Buell et

al., 1971; Connell and Slatyer, 1977; Oliver, 1981; McDonnell and

Stiles, 1983; Christensen and Peet, 1984; Burton, 1989; Myster and

Pickett, 1992) and can influence species composition by limiting the

number of species that successfully establish at greater distances from

seed sources.

STUDY SITE

Quercus alba L. Rolfe. Notes on forest succession in old

fields in southeastern Ontario: the woody species. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana.

Jokela, J. Grassle, G. of Natural

Resources and Environmental Sciences.

Bard, G. Juglans nigra was third, but had less than half the IVa of U.

americana. 1993. 179 p.

Bey, C. Quercus rubra was the only oak species that

was not significantly different for any of the three variables. For the

selected species, the mean plot values for density, basal area, and IVb

were calculated for each stand. 1991. and R. R. J. saccharinum and U. velutina. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to

old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. 1989. Taille (eds.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. 1970. 1989. ovata,

C. Similarly, Quercus and Carya spp. Koch 0.03 * 0.01

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. There were 38 plots in stand 1 and 40 plots in stand

2. Robert

Allerton, a wealthy benefactor, had established an estate and gardens at

the site, prior to donating it to the University of Illinois. F. Oecologia. Transactions of the Illinois State

Academy of Science. 1975. imbricaria, Fraxinus americana L., and C.

occidentalis also had high numbers of stems in this size class. and G. 1981. 1981. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Cornus spp. American Midland Naturalist. 58(4):

907-913.

Crowder, A. 1.2 65.0 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. Calculating an individual index value for each

plot, and then an average, would not accurately reflect the true

diversity of a stand because diversity is sensitive to sample size

(Magurran, 1988). Most of

the 600 ha of the park are rolling terrain and floodplain with both

old-growth and second growth upland and bottomland forests. 1976. 0.0 0.0 18.5

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Koch 0.4 39.5 2.4

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.8 21.1 2.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.1 36.8 1.7

Tilia americana L. 138(2): 357-370.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Johnson, W. The values were pooled because many

species were absent from a large number of the plots, making an analysis

of individual species problematic. 0.8 36.8 2.6

Cercis canadensis L. Assembling the land. 59(4): 251-272.

Wagner, W. Application of the generalized

jack-knife to Shannon’s measure of information used as an index of

diversity. For IVb,

it was IVb=32.06-0.1564*Distance (m), with and [R.sup.2] value of 0.32.

Schwegman, J. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Total 24.0 1181.6 100.0

Table 2. Slopes range from 0 to 7

percent. Dietary

circumvention of acorn tannins by blue jays. American elm. 0.1 20.0 1.0

Tilia americana L. rubra, Q. Koch 2.07 * 0.52

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. L. Ecology.

72(3): 1066-1075.

The large number of U. T. American Naturalist. 0.0 0.0 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. 22(3): 195-215.

Hamrick, J. 1.8 60.5 5.4

Celtis occidentalis L. W. K.

Schneid. palustris

seedlings under conditions of reduced soil water availability and solar

irradiance. K.

Schneid. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Smith. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. Sassafras

albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Q. American Journal of Botany. albidum made up a

major portion of the total stems, along with F. 0.2 65.0 3.4

Quercus rubra L. T. Buell, and J. Werner. 4.87 * 0.98

Quercus alba L. These values indicate that factors

associated with seed dispersal probably influence the variation of

forest composition and structure more than is commonly suggested.

Proximity to forest vegetation seems to be important as a determinant of

species diversity and composition during old-field succession at this

location. 0.02 * 0.00

Acer saccharinum L. Composition of an upland,

streamside forest in Piatt County, Illinois. 5: 285-307.

De Steven, D. 1952. 1.71 1.13

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 1.24 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1.95 * 0.20

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.42 6.90

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.8 57.9 3.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Intra-

and inter-stand comparisons and their implications for succession

mechanisms. 1977. L. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Sheets 3 and 6 [map]. 1991a. imbricaria’s dominance

in both stands and its greater abundance in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Most other Quercus spp. 6.28 * 0.42

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.66 7.75

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Secondary succession on the piedmont of New

Jersey. 1.3 7.8 10.7

Celtis occidentalis L. 16(6): 561-571.

Peet, R. 1976. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody

plants in a temperate forest sere. 84(1):

90-104.

Two successional forest stands developed on pastureland abandoned

during the 1930′s at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA were

examined for patterns of tree species diversity and composition. 10: 351-371.

Dolan, R. The other stand with a higher percentage of

forest perimeter and a narrower configuration was more diverse. G. 8.88 7.61

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Species were selected for comparisons based on two criteria: they

were either one of the 10 most dominant species in either stand based on

IVa or they were a species primarily dispersed by mammals. 1977. Sawtelle. Forest development in North America following

major disturbances. 1967. Dawson

and K. J. Johnson. 1950. Agriculture Handbook

654. Near a forested

border, tree density during succession is greater (Myster and Pickett,

1992) and small fields exhibit greater species richness (Crowder and

Harmsen, 1998). This recreated prairie

is burned periodically to favor prairie and eliminate trees. Tree stratum composition and distribution in the

streamside forest. imbricaria, and Q. Quercus imbricaria was the most common tree in

the 31 to 40 cm diameter class. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Morus rubra L. L. 2.7 42.1 6.0

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.8 57.9 5.6

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 2.54 * 0.71

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 1968. in this size class. americana had greater abundance in this

stand (Table 3). Koch. 1975. and B. Gertner (2), Gary L. 1989. Colonization by oak

seedlings into a heterogeneous successional habitat. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Ph.D. Shafer and Aaron M. Woody vegetation

of a streamside forest in Illinois. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Robinia pseudoacacia L. 0.15 0.10

Celtis occidentalis L. Guide to common woody plants of

Robert Allerton Park. L. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. saccharinum, a

floodplain species, on upland stand 2 is noteworthy. Mill. In the transitional zone between the uplands and floodplains,

which is subject to minor flooding, Quercus imbricaria Michx. Forest Ecology: A Foundation for Sustainable

Management. The stand is at least 6 m above the

floodplain of the Sangamon River, but can occasionally have standing

water in depressions associated with Sunbury silt loam. were common across the entire hydrological gradient while A. Landscape and ecological attributes of

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in Allerton Park. The mean of the VP values is the best estimate of the index.

Jack-knifing an index of diversity allowed us to examine the influence

of individual plots on the overall diversity of a stand without losing

the overall diversity. O. 1975. 3.7 76.3 11.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Urbana, IL: Agricultural experiment station, University of

Illinois. L. J. However, the north side of Stand 2 is within 30 m of the

main floodplain and transitional forests of the Sangamon River (Figure

1). Bulletin of the Torrey

Botanical Club. A. 0.02 * 0.00

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. The configurations and proximity to surrounding forest

permitted examination and comparison of the composition and diversity of

two old-field successional stands.

Burton, P. Ulmus spp. In this study Ulmus rubra

Muhl. Urbana, Illinois: Department of Civil Engineering,

1948.

Table 1. 7.1 15.4 10.5

Quercus velutina Lam. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. 0.96 * 0.09

Acer saccharinum L. L. White for help with field-work, Scott M.

Wiesbrook for help with field-work and soil analysis, and Jeffrey D.

Brawn for a discussion of information on blue jay research.

Briggs, J. Snyder. In accordance with our hypothesis, we expected plots

close to the forest border to have a positive influence (greatest tree

diversity), plots far from the border to have a negative influence

(least tree diversity), and plots in between to have little influence

(intermediate tree diversity) on the diversity of a stand. A significant increase

in diversity with proximity to original forest border was evident only

for stand 2. Pennsylvania

Ave. August 13, 1936.

The t-tests revealed significant differences between stands in

density, basal area, and IVb for some of the selected tree species

(Table 3). J. Journal of Ecology. American Midland Naturalist. 1981. R., W. G. Effect of fire on tree

spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. 1998. 2.9 0.0 0.0

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. 2.9 2.3 0.0

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. 2.96 2.21

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 2.81 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Peet. Both stands were sampled

using 0.081 ha circular plots systematically located 63.3 m apart along

cardinal azimuths. 1985. E. 0.2 15.0 1.0

Acer negundo L. imbricaria’s dominance. 1997.

Nut caching by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): implications for tree

demography. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. Effect of soil surface

topography and litter cover on the germination, survival, and growth of

musk thistle (Carduus nutans). These two trees were less than 40 m from the forest

border and by themselves could not likely have contributed to the

differences observed between stands in this study through seed or

sprouts. 1968. Dixon. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Cornus spp. Ecological Monographs. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

124(2): 174-188.

Vankat, J. 2.26 * 1.00

Celtis occidentalis L. These observations indicate that both stands began succession

from pasture to forest in the mid to late 1930′s. Ulmus americana had a much lower percentage of the total

stems per ha in this size class than in smaller size classes. Mechanisms of succession

in natural communities and their role in community stability and

organization. Undisturbed vegetation. 0.05 * 0.11

Quercus rubra L. R. Convergence during

secondary forest succession. Webb, III. Since the stands

differed with respect to both of these attributes, both indices were

used.

Adjacent vegetation influences tree invasion during old-field

succession (Bazzaz, 1968; Vankat, 1991; Myster, 1993) and species found

invading old-fields are often found in proximal forest stands (Ashby and

Weaver, 1970; Buell et al., 1971; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). There were

798 stems per ha having a total basal area of 21.1 m2 per ha for stand

2.

The reduced abundance in stand 2 for most of the Quercus and Carya

spp. Slopes range from 0

to 7 percent. 3.71 3.90

Ulmus rubra Muhl. were the two most

important species in an old-growth upland community located immediately

west of stand 1 (Boggess and Geis, 1967). 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. 1991. Smith, and C. Regression analyses were performed

with each pooled variable and distance from plots to forest border to

examine relationships between the abundance of the mammal dispersed

species and the distance to forest border.

Crow, T. E. 62(1): 81-85.

Oliver, C. Juglans

nigra also did not differ significantly in mean values for any of the

variables between stands. 0.0 5.3 0.3

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 72(3): 1076-1088.

Magurran, A. L. Bretthauer (1), George Z. O. In addition a linear regression analysis was used to statistically

quantify the relationship of VJ with distance from forest border for the

wider stand 2 which afforded sufficient width to do so. Schoen. M. Dissertation.

The greater percentage of border perimeter shared with forest

during succession and a narrower configuration of stand 1 with respect

to stand 2, most likely contributed to the greater diversity of stand 1

by providing a proximal seed source during colonization and old-field

succession.

Bazzaz, F. F. While the jack-knifing

procedure has been used previously to estimate and test the Shannon and

Simpson indices, and has been shown to provide superior accuracy, to our

knowledge the technique has not previously been applied to assess the

influence of individual plots in studies of forest succession. 15.9 8.1 0.0

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. W., J. Its

lower abundance in stand 1 might have been due to the absence of this

poorly drained soil type, which would favor the flood tolerant species

noted above. The

ability of tree species to disperse seed might be as important as other

factors, such as competition and herbivory, in determining tree species

composition in old-fields (De Steven, 1991a; 1991b). Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. L. 4.0 3.1 12.4

Crataegus spp. 1.2 1.5 0.6

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.6 0.3 28.4

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.2 39.5 2.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Mowing, grazing, and

tree cutting practices during forest succession are common and alter

successional processes in these stands. 1979. F. Ulmus rubra was codominant in 90 year

old successional stands in Ohio (Vankat and Snyder, 1991), and an early

to mid-successional species in other parts of central Illinois (McClain

and Ebinger, 1968).

The estimate of H’, which is the mean of the VP values, is

2.99 for stand 1, the narrow stand with 92 percent original forest

border. The total basal area for stand 1 was 24.0

m2 per hectare, with 782 stems per hectare.

Jones, A. The regression analyses between pooled

values of density, basal area, and IVb and the distance to forest border

were all significant (df=39; p-value0.001). 0.9 0.3 61.5

Acer saccharinum L. 93: 438-442.

McDonnell, M. 0.0 0.0 14.2

Cercis canadensis L. Besides the successional stands, at Allerton Park and

other forests along the Sangamon River in central Illinois Q. Ecology. C. In the 31 to 40 cm size

class, Q. L., and G. L. D. Stand 1 is located in the

southwestern portion of the park and is approximately 15.4 ha in size.

The portion sampled is at least 4.5 m above the floodplain of the

Sangamon River and not subject to periodic flooding. 0.6 0.0 5.9

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 0.1 10.5 0.6

Morus rubra L. W. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth.

Ecology. Gibson. The [R.sup.2]

value was 0.30, suggesting that distance to original forest border was

an important factor contributing to the variance in diversity among the

plots.

Quercus imbricaria’s natural habitat is wooded floodplains,

especially the margins of floodplains, but it occurs more frequently as

a pioneer species in the disturbed or agricultural landscape (Wagner and

Schoen, 1976). 103(12): 25-

32.

Darley-Hill, S. L. 1984. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Morus rubra L. 1992. The role of blue jays

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) in the postglacial dispersal of Fagaceous trees

in eastern North America. A. Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. Stand 1 has a long and

narrow configuration (Figure 1) and was almost completely surrounded by

mature forest, having 92 percent of its perimeter contiguous with

original forest. and D. Soil Survey of Piatt County, Illinois. Acorn Dispersal by the

blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). 5.54 3.35

Celtis occidentalis L. 1979. The

Allerton legacy: Proceedings of a symposium at Robert Allerton Park.

Urbana, IL: Allerton Trust Management Board, University of Illinois:

23-28.

The species with seeds primarily dispersed by mammals from stand 2,

for which the density, basal area, and IVb values were pooled, were J.

nigra, Q. Koch 6.2 4.9 2.9

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.7 6.8 4.2

Acer saccharum Marsh 7.8 3.6 0.7

Tilia americana L. Honkala, tech. 1977. R. 3: 153-168.

Smith, A. L. C. C. Size-class structure of three

streamside forests. 1.0 0.0 7.2

Acer saccharinum L. 2.4 60.5 7.0

Quercus alba L. R. A. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.

Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 0.22 * 0.01

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.07 0.10

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 1.2 47.5 4.9

Quercus velutina Lam. L. We hypothesized that a forest stand that

developed on a narrow field with 92 percent forest border would have

greater species diversity than a forest stand that developed on a wider

field with only a 50 percent forest border. 596

p.

accepted 6/18/06

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

received 6/30/05

De Steven, D. Many studies

focus exclusively on site characteristics, resource availability, and

competition as important determinants of forest successional patterns

(Kimmins, 1997). Adkisson. 1.08 * 0.43

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Annual

Review of Ecology and Systematics. For density, the

relationship was Density=16.59-0.0831*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2]

value of 0.32. When stand 2

plots that were close to the forest border were removed from diversity

calculations during the jack-knifing procedure, diversity decreased.

When plots far from the border were removed, diversity increased. T. 1.0 0.0 10.7

Juniperus virginiana L. All rights reserved.

David, M. 1.0 75.0 6.6

Acer saccharinum L. and R. 0.7 20.0 2.3

Fraxinus americana L. American Midland

Naturalist. A. 0.2 7.9 0.6

Crataegus spp. 5.2 3.9 0.7

Juniperus virginiana L. Koch. Observations on the ground reveal that two of the seven large

pasture trees identified in the 1936 photograph of stand 2 could have

been Q. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. The species composition

of the portion of Allerton Park northeast of stand 2 has also been well

documented (Bell, 1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Bell, 1980). P. Gleditsia triacanthos had its highest density in

this size class. This re-sampling procedure calculates the index

n times, where n is the number of plots. and Quercus velutina Lam. L. 98(2): 67-74.

Johnson, G. 0.95 0.43

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. americana, Q.

alba, Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Quercus macrocarpa Michx., Carya ovata

(Mill.) K. The largest size class (41 + cm) was dominated by Q.

imbricaria. L. 56(1): 19-34.

Buell, M. The structural complexity

of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant

species. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Quercus

imbricaria was the most dominant tree species in the successional

forests of this study, and preference of its small acorns by the blue

jay, which caches acorns in soil and under litter, might be a primary

factor in its ability to more successfully invade old-field successional

stands than other oaks and mammal-dispersed tree species.

(2) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. Origins of oak stands on

the Springfield Plain: a lesson on oak regeneration. K. In the 41 cm and

greater size class, Q. In stand 2 diversity was highest close to

the forest border and decreased as distance from the forest border

increased. 119(3): 300-307.

Two separate upland forest tracts used as pasture prior to the

1930′s were selected as study sites. imbricaria had the highest IVa, followed by U. 1974. 1983. americana and Juglans

nigra L. 7.22 * 1.04

Quercus alba L. 1.6 78.9 7.0

Juglans nigra L. S. 1987. 62: 559-563.

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus). 0.06 0.05

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.06 * 0.00

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 1973. W. 2.32 * 3.73

Quercus rubra L. and W. Acorn preference of urban

blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) during fall and spring in northwestern

Arkansas. The majority of the forest presently

bordering both stands is upland, with small percentages of riparian forest border. The values for

tree density, basal area, and IVb for major mammal dispersed species

were pooled by plot for stand 2. 0.21 * 0.10

Ulmus americana L. Koch. Woody vegetation

of Hart Memorial Woods, Champaign County, Illinois. Species importance values

(IV) were calculated using a sum of relative density, relative basal

area, and relative frequency, were scaled to 100 by dividing by 3, and

are referred to hereafter as IVa. Eighteen years of change in an Illinois

streamside deciduous forest. Koch 1.29 * 0.35

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. The notable exception was

the greater abundance of Q. The VJ values from the jack-knifing procedure using

H’ were examined for relationships with distance from forest border

(m). E. The relationship for basal area was Basal

Area=0.76-0.0040*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2] value of 0.34. The upper

soil horizons in both stands were examined for indicators of past

agricultural use.

Scarlett, T. Geis. (Table 3) suggests their ability to invade the stand was reduced

with increasing distance from a forest border. 0.7 0.0 9.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 104(2): 127-135.

Myster, R. imbricaria

had its greatest importance in transition zones between floodplain and

upland forests; it was not as common as other Quercus spp. Wang. 0.7 0.0 1.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. American Midland

Naturalist. Soil

Report No. 0.7 1.0 2.6

Crataegus spp. americana dominated the three smallest size classes in stand 2.

Sassafras albidum had a large number of stems in the two smallest size

classes. Adkisson, T. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. The Canadian

Field-Naturalist. were ranked 3 and 6, respectively, due to a

high number of stems in small diameter classes. 3.1 6.2 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. 22.8 23.1 8.5

Juglans nigra L. 118(4): 392-398.

Bell, D. imbricaria acorns (Hermes, 1991). Variability of

soil properties, including percent moisture and bulk density, for these

and other upland forest soils at Allerton Park is low (David and Wang,

1989). and S. 54.6 32.5 7.2

Ulmus americana L. The

Shannon index of diversity and Simpson index of dominance were

calculated for both stands using the jack-knifing procedure. 6.87 * 14.45

Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 0.0 12.0

Malus spp. Bell. 0.0 1.0 0.7

Prunus spp. L. W. Quercus imbricaria is an important Quercus sp. At Allerton Park in Piatt County

Illinois, old agricultural fields set aside as nature reserves in the

1930′s have reverted to forest without direct subsequent

disturbance. 15:

141-155.

In stand 2, Q. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Prunus spp. were less abundant in stand 2 than in narrow

stand 1. in

other old-field stands in Illinois (Bazzaz, 1968; Jokela and Sawtelle,

1985). Journal of Biogeography. Close to the forest border, where a greater number of species

could successfully disperse their seeds, greater diversity would be

expected. Ebinger. and R. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Morus rubra L. Koch. 56(2): 485-488.

McCarthy, J. imbricaria in stand 2. The estimate of H’ for stand 2, the wide stand with only 50

percent original forest border, is 2.44. K.

Schneid. 74(3):

451-457.

Scott M. bicolor, Q. Quercus imbricaria was the only oak species

that had a significantly higher density, basal area, and IVb in stand 2.

Christensen, N. The Michigan Botanist. A series of

n pseudovalues (VP) are also created. 36 p.

Braun, E. In stand 2, the significant

reduction in the IVb, density, and basal area with greater distance from

forest border for species primarily dispersed by mammals is consistent

with this idea. 0.1 15.0 0.8

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. American Midland Naturalist. Plant species diversity in old-field

successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. A

regression equation using the jack-knifed values quantified a

significant decrease in diversity with distance from forest border for

the wider old-field stand. At Allerton Park, we studied two forest stands with differing

original amounts of forest border that developed on pastureland

abandoned in the 1930′s. A. Ulmus americana has been found to be an initial invader (Briggs

and Gibson, 1992; Crow et al., 1994; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998) and a

dominant early to mid-successional species in northern Illinois (Bell

and del Moral, 1977; Bell, 1997). 7.72 * 20.41

Fraxinus americana L. A series

of jack-knife estimates (VJ) are created for each plot, and represent

the diversity of the stand with an individual plot removed. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. and T. Its remaining border was adjacent to abandoned

pasture that was converted to tallgrass prairie. W. C., C. were present in high

densities. and P. and Celtis

occidentalis L. The park is located in

the Prairie Peninsula of the oak-hickory forest region in the central

United States (Braun, 1950). and Ulmus americana L. imbricaria was the most common species, followed by U.

americana and J. The variance of the VP values is

better than other estimates of H’ variance (Adams and McCune,

1979), making the VP values reliable for significance testing (Zahl,

1977). Forestry research report No.

89-1. T. and S. This relationship was likely not seen in stand 1 because of

its narrow configuration and higher percentage of forested border. 3.3 0.0 0.0

Platanus occidentalis L. A. 1990. University of

Illinois, Urbana, IL. velutina, Q. K.

Schneid. Geis, and W. tomentosa, and C. Juglans nigra and G.

triacanthos were also common. Allerton Park was established

in 1946 and is owned by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

which maintains it as a reserve for research and education. Ecology. 72(1): 25-36.

Records indicate that both study stands were cleared in the late

1800′s and subsequently used for cattle grazing (Foster, 1981).

Aerial photographs and maps show that both stands were originally grassy

pastures with scattered trees (Holmberg Air Mapping Company, 1936;

University of Illinois, 1948). 1.2 35.0 3.6

Crataegus spp. Koch. 3.9 2.3 2.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Quercus

alba dominated the upland forest and the second most dominant oak

species was Q. American Midland Naturalist. S. 133 [aerial photograph]. Juglans nigra represented a significant portion of the 21 to 30

cm size class. 0.0 0.3 3.3

Viburnum prunifolium L. Invasion of trees

in secondary succession on the New Jersey piedmont. American Midland Naturalist.

115(1): 131-145.

Keywords: Old-field succession; tree species diversity; Quercus

imbricaria; forest regeneration

Edgington, J. 0.30 * 0.47

Juglans nigra L. Acer saccharinum also had a large proportion of its total

number of stems per ha in this size class. Bulletin

of the Torrey Botanical Club. 0.10 0.08

Quercus velutina Lam. T. K.

Schneid. and D. 78(1): 89-97.

If proximity to forest border influences the species composition

and densities of successional forests on old-fields, then differing

amounts of forest border along the perimeter of old-fields and the

extent to which the forest surrounds an old-field should also have an

effect on tree species composition and diversity of successional

forests. Quercus imbricaria

and U. coords. L. J. 6.2 5.3 0.6

Malus spp. Allerton Park is located in the Grand

Prairie Natural Division of Illinois (Schwegman, 1973).

METHODS

Foster, F. Quercus velutina, F. Johnson, and C. 7.21 * 14.33

Juglans nigra L. American Nurseryman.

174(8): 71.

Holmberg Air Mapping Company. A. 0.19 0.15

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 0.0 0.0 2.9

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 2.9 2.0 1.3

Acer saccharinum L. No

plots in the narrow stand were far enough from the forest border to

decrease seed dispersal of any tree species in a way that significantly

influenced stand diversity. Floristics of a

chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in

southwestern Ohio. americana comprised about 30

percent of the stems in the smallest size class (6-10 cm). SAF publication 85-05, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois:

181-188.

. 8.05 * 3.92

Ulmus americana L. The soils consist of Miami (Oxyaquic Hapludalf) loams and

Xenia (Aquic Hapludalf) and Russell (Typic Hapludalf) silt loams. 3.31 * 6.39

Quercus rubra L. M.S. D.

Stand 2 is approximately 16.2 hectares in size and is located in

the eastern part of the park directly south of the Sangamon River

approximately 1200 m northeast of stand 1. 1997. Second Edition. 0.6 0.0 5.3

Acer negundo L. 0.58 * 0.08

Acer saccharinum L. 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. Ulmus rubra and U. Koch. Acer saccharinum, a floodplain species able to tolerate

wet soils, was most common on, but not restricted to, the Sunbury silt

loam, a somewhat poorly drained soil found in upland depressions. 8.0 3.1 0.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Small. Quercus imbricaria was

the dominant tree species among oaks and other species in this study,

perhaps due to preference of its small acorns by the blue jay, which

carries and caches acorns in soil and under litter.

Bazzaz, F. 3.39 * 1.53

Ulmus americana L. 131(1): 84-97.

During early succession to forest, tree density is usually highest

near forest borders. Woody vegetation of Baber

Woods, Edgar County, Illinois. del Moral. Oecologia. 9.4 12.4 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. Quercus imbricaria is also drought tolerant (McCarthy and Dawson,

1990), an attribute of early successional species (Bazzaz, 1979). 0.8 60.5 4.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Robert

Allerton set aside this land as a nature reserve. 0.2 18.4 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.2 21.1 1.6

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. The soil types are the same as those of stand 1 with additional

minor areas (less than 20 percent of total stand area) of Sunbury

(Aquollic Hapludalf) silt loam, which is somewhat poorly drained and was

formed in loess and underlying calcareous loam glacial till under forest

vegetation (Martin, 1991). The Quercus spp. R., D. 0.1 7.5 0.6

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 10.0 0.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 0.26 * 2.90

BA

Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. rubra and U.

americana (Table 1). 84(3-4): 95-112.

Kimmins, J. 134. 0.0 0.0 6.2

Morus rubra L. 1.0 92.1 7.7

Quercus velutina Lam. Mill. W. Robert Allerton Park,

Piatt Co., Illinois. 1:4250. 0.3 3.1 1.9

Crataegus spp. imbricaria and other Quercus spp. O. 1991b. T. 0.73 * 5.48

Density

Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Des Moines, Iowa: Woltz Studio

Inc. 0.0 0.0 23.5

Quercus rubra L. Plot means for importance value b (IVb), density, and basal

area (BA) in [m.sup.2], for selected species. 0.0 0.0 5.2

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Stand 2 has

a wider configuration than stand 1 (Figure 1).

Johnson, W. Growth and water use

efficiency of Quercus alba, Q. Bell. Stiles. C., L. Calculating the diversity of each plot

separately and using the mean to quantify stand diversity is problematic

because it is possible for two plots to have identical values for

diversity yet be composed of completely different species. Reduced forest border and

increased distance from forest stands increases establishment of wind

and bird dispersed tree species over mammal dispersed species. Illinois

Nature preserves Commission, Springfield, IL.

Johnson, F. M. 0.0 0.0 3.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 18.2 5.3 0.0

Quercus rubra L. Majerus (eds.) Proceedings Fifth Central Hardwood Forest

Conference. 2.7 60.5 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 2.5 0.1

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. These were also scaled to 100 and are referred to hereafter as

IVb. C. were absent in

southern Illinois old-fields less than 25 years old (Bazzaz, 1968;

1975).

Boggess, W. 1980. 7.71 4.98

Quercus velutina Lam. H., Jr. Edgington for advice, Lyle J. 11.4 8.5 7.8

Quercus rubra L. 0.1 5.3 0.2

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Differing seed dispersal mechanisms in upland forests

(wind, bird, or mammal) are important in determining the ability of

trees to invade an old-field. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Recruitment into larger size classes

is likely limited due to Dutch elm disease mortality, which Bell (1997)

found to be highest in trees with a dbh greater than 26 cm. The

procedure allowed us to examine the influence of individual plots on

overall stand level diversity, making it possible to quantify the

diversity of a single plot while still permitting a comparison of

diversity between stands. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature

Preserves System: Part 2, The Natrual Divisions of Illinois. 0.0 0.3 0.0

Cornus spp. 1990. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which species

occurred / total number of plots), and importance value (IV,

(relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 2.

Density

Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. L. 50: 231-232.

There was an apparent relationship between the VJ values of H’

and distance from original forest border (m) in stand 2. F., H. Forest Regeneration on two old

fields in southwestern Illinois. The floodplains were

dominated by Acer saccharinum L. Succession on abandoned fields in the Shawnee

Hills, southern Illinois. 94: 159-164.

This study is unique for several reasons. Dawson. velutina and Q. Microsite requirements for germination and

establishment of three grass species. also had values reflecting a

high degree of dominance. 8.35 5.86

Quercus velutina Lam. were distributed throughout the stand, not

solely on the poorly drained Sunbury silt loam, indicating a greater

ecological amplitude for this species with respect to soil moisture

conditions. 1.9 0.9 13.9

Fraxinus americana L. 0.1 10.5 0.5

Acer negundo L. 1.4 80.0 6.8

Ulmus rubra Muhl. W. All woody stems greater than 6 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh)

(Root et al., 1971; Boggess and Geis, 1967; Johnson et al., 1978;

Edgington, 1991) within a plot were recorded by species to the nearest

cm dbh, and dead standing trees were also recorded. americana stems in the smaller size classes

(Tables 1 and 2) and its intermediate shade tolerance (Bey, 1990)

suggest that existing elm trees may not have been initial colonizers.

Ulmus americana, however, comprised 9 percent of the stems in the 41 cm

and greater size class in stand 2. 1.5 3.1 18.8

Celtis occidentalis L. 4.6 6.8 3.6

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 35.8 26.3 4.9

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Ecological diversity and its measurement.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. The average and maximum distance from a plot

to forest border for stand 1 were 47 m and 99 m, respectively, as

opposed to average distance of 103 m and maximum distance of 204 m for

stand 2.

DISCUSSION

Bell, D. In: Silvics of North America, Volume

2, Burns, R. In the

11-20 cm size class Ulmus spp., Q. 92(1): 35-46.

Root, T. 118(4): 365-376.

Less forest border and the greater width of stand 2 probably

favored wind-dispersed species compared to mammal-dispersed species. and D. Bulletin of

the Torrey Botanical Club. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. 1986. Stand 1 was narrower

and had a greater percentage of its perimeter bordered by forest at

the time of agricultural abandonment.

IVb

Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Washington DC: U.S. We further hypothesized that

species diversity and the abundance of mammal dispersed tree species

would decrease with increasing distance from forest borders. 0.7 0.7 1.3

Acer negundo L. 27.6 27.6 14.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. L. The H’ values are

significantly different (df=75; p-value0.0001) indicating that stand

1 is more diverse than stand 2. Lee. Slatyer. The importance of seed dispersal is often noted, but

with no quantification of the variability associated with seed sources.

Proximity to surrounding forest vegetation has been shown in the present

study to be important as a determinant of species diversity and

composition during old-field succession. McCune. The

Shannon index of diversity and the Simpson index of dominance are

heterogeneity indices that combine information on both species richness

and species evenness (Peet, 1974). 3.32 2.30

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. Koch. J. Mill. Effects of a prescribed burn on tree- and

herb-layer vegetation in a post oak (Quercus stellata) dominated

flatwoods. Thomas, and C. in

undisturbed upland forests (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971;

Bell, 1974; 1980). The measurement of species diversity. The D values are also

significantly different (df=49; p-value0.0001). 10.4 7.8 0.3

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. E. 71(4): 412-419.

Dykstra, M. T. Adkisson. from stand 2 had

significantly lower values for all three variables. K.

Schneid. P. Urbana, IL 61801 phone: (217) 333-9418; email: sbrettha@uiuc.edu

Vankat, J. Elsewhere at Allerton Park and along the Sangamon River,

small diameter Ulmus spp. saccharinum from stand 2 had significantly higher values for the

three variables than in stand 1. Each time the index is

calculated, one plot is systematically removed from the sample. H. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Cornus spp. 1988. 7.2 6.5 4.2

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Koch 0.1 7.5 0.6

Quercus alba L. E. H., and R. imbricaria, and S. Department of

Civil Engineering. The

greater mass of Q. IV. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. 1991. and R. americana had the highest IVa

(Table 2). M. 1971. In

addition, Quercus imbricaria may be primarily dispersed by the blue jay

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) (Darley-Hill and Johnson, 1981; Harrison and

Werner, 1984; Johnson and Webb, 1989; Johnson et al., 1993; Johnson et

al., 1997) which prefers small acorns (Scarlett and Smith, 1991) and is

known to take the small Q. 1994. 12.60 * 24.91

Juglans nigra L. In: J. For

example, A. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 3.3 2.9 0.0

Morus rubra L. K. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. In: J. Considering that the

seeds of oak and hickory species are commonly distributed by mammals and

gravity, more surrounding forest cover with seed and associated

dispersal agents seemed to increase the chances for these species to

successfully disperse into the site. acorns relative to

the seed mass of wind dispersed species may afford the Quercus spp.

seeds an advantage in penetrating through grassland plant communities

(Jokela and Sawtelle, 1985; Fowler, 1986; Hamrick and Lee, 1987). 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh